Cyber Security Issue- Part B

International Cooperation in combating with cyber crime

In existing period of time, cyber crime has become one of major threats in front of the government of different country. The Increasing severity of cyber crime has attracted the significant attention of international community. As the nature and landscape of cyber crimes has become quite changed in recent period of time as cyber crimes have become more organized. Moreover the span of such kind of crimes has also become quite expanded at global level. Owing to this reason, there is a need of an intensive cooperation of the entire international society.

In direction to have some significant and effective combat with cyber crime at international level, international society is making some crucial and integrated efforts. In the same series, International Criminal Police Organization – INTERPOL has started some crucial efforts of combining strategies of different countries against cyber crime so that an effective and universal problem can be found out. Among such efforts of INTERPOL, establishment of INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) in Singapore in 2014 is one of the most mentionable efforts. The IGCI will work as the center of excellence for addressing different and critical cyber crime across the globe. This complex will be directed to create an alliance with internet security specialists from different nations and develop an international model for ensuring the prevention of cyber crimes at international level. Moreover, administration of global law and its enforcement is also one of the major responsibilities of this international complex .

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Unlike other types of crimes, prevention of cyber crimes requires an intensive amount of technical efficiency and expertise, highly developed and updated infrastructure, and integration of the strengths of different nations. From the perspective of international security, it is quite essential to have better and effective exchange of information and technologies among different nations. In such scenario, an intensive cooperation among countries at international level becomes quite essential. Along with such reason, the international cooperation is also required to have better and effective enforcement of law, prioritization of resources and buildings cross-sectorial and cross-jurisdictional collaboration .
Another crucial example of international cooperation for fighting against cyber crime can be seen in the operational partnerships developed by the United States and the European Union for developing an informal but effective model for cyber security. For the purpose of fighting against cyber crime, in 2001, the Council of Europe has proposed a treaty, which is known as the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime. This convention was ratified by the US and other 30 different nations later. The prime highlight of this treaty is that it prepares a unified legal framework on which crucial information can be shared among member countries of the treaty so that different types of critical cyber crimes such as network or computer breaches, copyright infringement, Cyber spying, Hacking of data, and child pornography can be prevented in the most effective manner. Since, the USA and European Union can be considered as major powers in the context of information technologies across the world, this cooperation can be proved quite effective and crucial for prevention of organized cyber crime at international level .
Another crucial example of international cooperation for preventing cyber crimes is the strategic partnership between the US and China. In the year, 2012, defense ministers of both the nations become agreed on enhancing mutual coordination in the context of technical expertise so that an effective framework for preventing cyber attacks and crimes related to national security can be minimized in the most effective manner. As the US and China is the prime locations for cyber criminals, this partnership may be prove quite potential from the perspective of international cyber crime prevention. However, this partnership came after the political tension between both the country regarding cyber attack and spying .
In addition to this, the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) has also undertaken some of the critical steps for the purpose of ensuring cyber security across the globe. In the same series, there are some countries, namely Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States which has signed agreement with NATO to have international cooperation for fighting against cyber crime.

Among such efforts, the NATAO has strengthened the powers and responsibilities of Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. This center is serving as a hub for different countries across the globe to integrate and apply their strengths for controlling cyber crime in the most effective manner. Different European and Latin American countries such as Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania Spain, and the Netherlands are the active partners of this center, which work together for improving cyber defense interoperability among them .
Although, there are some crucial examples available regarding international integration of different countries for preventing cyber crimes, yet still such efforts are not quite enough. As the span of the international cyber crime is too broad for such types of cooperation. There is a need of having integrated and combined efforts from different communities across the world. In existing period of time, although different countries and groups across the globe are making alliances for fighting with such crimes, yet there is a lack proper organization and integration of such efforts at international level.
Moreover, it has also been evident that only developed countries, which are more exposed towards the threat of cyber crime, are interested in such type of integration of power and expertise. There is a lack of participation of developing and under developed nation in such type of crucial international integration. This scenario can be proved quite harmful in preparing a unified protection shield at international level against cyber threats. In direction to this, the role of international organizations such as the United Nations, International court or the WTO becomes quite vital in pursuing member countries including developing and developed to integrate their strengths towards prevention of cyber security crime .
In addition to this, another critical problem faced by international players in maintaining effective coordination towards cyber crime prevention is related with unclear and confusing role of government in preventing such types of serious threats. In existing period of time, there is no any clear rule defined in any of the law that can be able to define the role and responsibilities of government of a country in the prevention of cyber crime. As per one view, internet can be taken as private sector innovation on which there is no role of the government, while as per the other view since the crimes committed on the internet are presenting some serious threat to the national security, the intervention of the government becomes quite essential. Along with this, cyber security sometime judged as job of the military while, sometime its nature advocates its civil domain. This confusing role of the government has made the international integration of different countries over preparing an effective and strategic partnership over prevention of cyber crime .

On the basis of the analysis of the findings of the essay, it can be revealed that there are some of the critical threats related with cyber security at global level. In direction to this, there is a need of having some intensive amount of international cooperation. In this context, international society has undertaken some integrated steps which can be proved quite effective in making the international arena free from cyber crimes. Although, there are some critical issues in maintaining an effective environment for international security against cyber crime, yet different efforts of international society for maintaining international cooperation can be proved quite effective from the long term perspective.

Government Control over Internet Content

In existing period of time Internet has been emerged as one of the major ways of information exchange. Internet based applications have started to be used as the major means of information creation, manipulation, up-gradation, transfer and dissemination among people. Although there are a number of different security related threats such as distortion of the information and hacking of important and confidential information, yet because of intensive benefits of internet, usage of internet for information exchange has become quite popular. However, because of different issues there is a need of keep control over contents published on the internet so that maximum advantages of internet can be availed .
In recent period of time, a number of different cases related with information leakage from the internet have come into lime light, which has highlighted the requirement of scrutiny of information and content available on internet. In direction to this, for the government of a nation, it is quite essential to have some crucial guidelines for deciding the viability of the content available on the internet so that misuse and misinterpretation of information cannot be possible. As per the local law, the government of a particular country can ban any objectionable material published on the internet, which can be proved harmful for financial, social, cultural or political sovereignty of that country. As at international standards there no any specific guidelines or law that decides that what content on the internet should be banned or not, it all depends upon the understanding and decision of the local government to ban any content available on internet .

There are some common types of material that should be banned on the internet by the government of different countries. In this context, all the websites and web based servers that engage in spying on individual and other nations should be banned. Such type of contents directs to leak some crucial and confidential information data regarding political, economic and defense of a country. The nature of such information is quite exclusive as the misuse of such information can harm the sovereignty and sustainability of the country. The open availability of such type of information with the help of internet can be proved quite helpful for competitive or rival countries to harm that country. Recently, the USA has alleged China for unauthorized access and hacking of its highly confidential data.
As per the USA official with the help of cyber spying, China has acquired some crucial confidential information regarding economic status of the country, which can present a significant threat to economic security of the country. This incident presents some crucial example of the harmfulness of publishing country specific confidential data on the internet . In this way, it can be considered that availability of such type of crucial information on the open network should be monitored and controlled by the government of the country.
In addition to this, the government should also ban the content available on the website that can spread rumors and fear among common people. The availability of some provocative speeches, literatures and contents including criminal activity or accidents and footage of real or simulated violence can lead to ignite riots and civil mutiny within the society that can be proved quite harmful from the perspective of the sustainability of the society. In this context it becomes quite essential for the local government to control the availability of such type of harmful contents on the internet. Many governments undertake such type of steps in the conditions of political violence within the country. For instance, in the recent political crisis in Egypt, the president has imposed ban on social media sites, such as Facebook, twitter for the purpose controlling civil war. Moreover the government has banned websites that promotes and intensively publishes extreme political views against the government as such views are generally undertaken for the radicalizing of vulnerable members of the society and ignite riots and civil war within the country .
Moreover in the process of policy formulation by the government of a country, the unauthorized access of some crucial information via internet can be proved quite harmful and problematic. Sometime government publishes it strategic intentions and visions regarding some particular project on the internet so that common public can also be aware about the actions of the government regarding overall development and growth of the society. However, sometimes availability of such type of strategic information can be proved quite harmful as hackers can misuse such information to disturb the strategic planning of the government of that country. In this regard, it can be considered that availability of such crucial type of strategic information should also be restricted on the internet .
Along with some crucial benefits, internet can also be proved as a source of different issues of crimes related to monetary frauds and cheatings. In this context, there are a number of websites available on the websites that engages in activities like online gaming, bidding, bating and gambling. These websites entice innocent people by showing fake offers on websites. Under the influence of such offers, people invest their hard earned money on such sites. In this way, with the help of internet, such type of unlicensed, illegal and unauthorized websites cheat innocent users easily. Due to such incidents, people have to bear some intensive amount of monetary and non-monetary loss, which resulted to high degree of stress to the user. Owing to this, reason, the government of the country should intervene in such conditions and undertake some effective and applicable actions. Among such actions, the ban on such type of unauthorized, illegal and unlicensed websites of online gaming and gambling should be implied so that the degree of financial frauds and cheating can be controlled in the most effective manner.
Another crucial issue related to internet usage is related with the social degradation because of unethical and objectionable contents widely and openly available on the different websites. Among such content, pornography is one of the most objectionable material available of different open websites on internet. In existing period of time, different sexually explicit and adult contents are easily available on internet. Majority of users of such contents are children or teenagers. Such type of contents leads to decrease the ethical and moral value of a person down since from his childhood.
From the perspective of sustainability of the society this situation can be proved quite harmful. In addition to this, contents that support social differences on the basis of race, religion, caste, sexual preference or other social/cultural factors can also leads the society towards destruction . The government should take some effective and focused efforts for controlling such factors in the most effective manner. Imposition of ban over such contents can be proved effective measures from the side of the government.
On the basis of findings of the entire paper it can be revealed that along with positive impacts, there are some negative impacts of the internet over individual and society. International society and local government is required to have significant intervention to keep control over such issues.


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