Citation in Research Paper – Meaning, Types and Techniques

02/20/2020 | 1054

Meaning of Citation in Research Paper

Citations are basically a way to inform the reader that some amount of information included in the research paper has been taken from other sources. It is the citation that helps readers in finding the sources from where data has been taken.  Doing the citation is important in order to avoid the chances of plagiarism.

For example, APA  in-text citation style (Kumar, 2020)

Types of citations styles

The different types of citation Research Paper styles are:

  • Modern Language Association

It is a citation style design by Modern language association. MLA citation style is mainly used in citing sources, particularly in literary research paper.  Parenthetical;  citation which only consists of the name of author and page number are generally utilizing while doing MLA citations.

For instance, The book basically consist of successful stories of most popular business persons (John and Johnson 19)

  • American Psychological Association

It is the citation style that was sourced in the year 1929. According to APA citation style, three are basically some information which is included while doing in-text citation include the surname of the author, date of paper published, page number. You can use this type of citation style for social science and psychology. APA citation style also includes the name of the author and date of publication.

Example: (Field, 2020, p.1)

  • Chicago which supports two styles: There are basically two ways of
  • Notes and bibliography
  • Author name and date
  •  Turabian

it is a citation style that is supported by the Chicago citation style. This type of citation style which students uses in a research paper.  There are two ways of doing Turabian citation these are:

a)Notation system: This type of citation style is generally utilized in humanities such as literature, arts and history.

b)Author date system: It is a citation style which is utilized in social science.

For example: in-text citation, it is the book which consists of detailed succession.

  • Harvard citation style

This type of citation style while writing a research paper related to the area of the economy. Harvard citation style include the name of author and date of publication,

For example, book contains successful business stories.

  • Vancouver

It the citation style which you can use mainly for writing a research paper in the field of medical science. In such type of citation style, you need to include  information related to the locations from where you have collect  specific information  and  provide detail information about the source in list of references.

For instance: In-text citation: A book includes entrepreneurial success stories and information about the techniques which they have applied for achieving success.

Reference list Success entrepreneurial stories –

Kumar . S, Johnson. D,. , Success entrepreneurial stories.  US new press release: 2019.

  • Osceola

it is the citation style which is basically students use for writing the research paper related to the legal field. This citation style also utilizes a system of note. In addition to this, the OSCOLA  citation style is more suitable for writing academic papers. In the OSCOLA citation style, you need to provide complete information about the link or location from where you have collected information. It is the basic information which you need to provide in a footnote.

ACS -(It stands for American chemical society).  Students can use ACS citation for writing a chemistry research paper.

Different kind of in-text citation 

  • Parenthetical citation: You need to put such type of citation it directly in the text. It is the kind of citation which mainly consists of the name of the author and date of publication of the paper.
  • Note citation: It is the form of a citation which you need to place in a footnote, page number, information about the publisher.
  •  Numeric citation: You in order to use such type of citation style need to provide numbers to all the sources from where you have gathered information.

Techniques for choosing a citation style

Before selecting the citation style,  it is very much important for you to consider the requirement of the university.  

  • Citation style for submission of the journal: You can use specific citation style in the journal. For instance, students generally use the Harvard citation style in the European Journal of Criminology. You can use APA citation style in the Journal of Human resource management. If in case you need to include Endnote for managing references then in such case you can make the choice of target journal from the list then a specific citation style will be loaded without human intervention.
  • The citation style used in student papers: You need to make the choice of citation style according to your field. In addition to this, you need to select that citation style which provides you with a huge volume of information related to the topic.

For instance, in case you are writing a research paper on humanities and the paper includes lots of quotations then in such a situation MLA citation style is  most appropriate. The use of the MLA citation style will help you in eliminating the hindrance inflow of arguments.

APA or Chicago citation style is appropriate when you are writing a scientific paper where you have collected the data from a lot of sources. Doing the complete citation for all the sources of information is not possible, therefore you can only provide the name of author and date of publication. If you will APA or Chicago citation style then the reader will be easily and quickly can check the authenticity of sources from where you have collected information.


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