Concept of Content Analysis
Content analysis can be referred to as either a quantitative or qualitative approach applied for analyzing the text. It is a type of analytical technique which is applied in different types of investigation such as media, marketing, sociology, etc. It can also be considered to be a research technique which mainly emphasizes on actual content. You can also consider content analysis to be the procedure of data analysis where the researcher performs an investigation on content within a message.
For example: The report containing the information about the weather conditions of particular location in next few days. By analyzing the text or content you can easily make your judgment about travelling to specific location.
Example of content analysis in quantitative research
For instance, an investigation conducted by the author with the purpose of identifying the issues in employment which is highlighted in the political campaign. Investigators by analyzing the speech of different speakers can easily identify the frequency of words like jobs, work, and employment. Statistical techniques can be utilized by the researcher for analyzing the difference in a speech provided by different people during the campaign.
Example of content analysis in qualitative research
Using the same above example, but here the researcher will require to locate the terms in speech and investigator will require to address the other phrases utilized by the candidate for describing the term employment issues, Some of the candidates might have use term laziness, unemployment for describing the situation of employment.
Therefore, considering the fact the researcher will need to develop an understanding of the relationship between two different terms.
Different types of text in content analysis
The various types of texts in the content analysis are:
- Written text: Such types of text include books journals etc.
- Oral text: It includes oral speech.
- Iconic texts: These are basically drawing, paintings, etc.
- Audio-visual text: It includes TV programs, videos, movies etc.
- Hyper texts: These texts are generally found on the internet.
Uses of content analysis
Uses of content analysis in research are:
- Content analysis is an analytical technique that can be utilized for performing both qualitative and quantitative research.
- You can apply content analysis in a different field such as media, marketing, cultural studies, etc.
- It is the analytical technique that can be utilized for analyzing the global differences in communication content.
- Content analysis can be utilized for intention, the purpose of an individual or group of people.
- Content analysis also provides you with ease in analyzing or addressing the emotional state of an individual. You can utilize content analysis
- You can utilize the content analysis for determining the effect of external components present in the environment such as laws, code of conduct, culture, etc on message.
Importance of content analysis for research
- Content analysis is very much important as it enables you to develop an understanding of the relationship between various concepts in a text.
- In addition to this, content analysis is important as it will help you in developing the understanding of content and would support in addressing its key features.
- The content analysis is significant as it will help you in eliminating the unstructured content in a text.
- It will also support you in identifying the important facts in the content. It will also help you in determining the behavioral response to communication.
- Content analysis has great importance as it helps you to increase the validity of outcomes by applying the techniques for eliminating biases.
Types of content analysis
The two most common type of content analysis are:
Conceptual analysis: It is basically a type of content analysis that mainly involves quantifying the presence of the specific term in a text.
Relational analysis: It is a procedure that includes the identification of concepts there in the text. The relational analysis mainly emphasizes on examination of the relationship between various concepts present in a text.
For Example: analysis of the speech given by president of America on health care services. While analyzing the speech of the president on health care services, the investigator will mainly emphasize on the use of both positive and negative words. Instead of analyzing the relationship between the texts investigator will be more interested in quantifying the number of the time positive or negative words for health care services are used by the president which is considered to be relational analysis. But in content analysis, the researcher is more concerned about the presence of positive and negative words in speech.
Advantages of content analysis
- You can get various advantages by utilizing the content analysis. Some of the advantages are:
- Through content analysis, you can easily analyze the pattern of communication.
- You can utilize content analysis for performing both Quantitative and Qualitative operations.
- Another biggest advantage of content analysis is that it enables to develop the understanding of complex models related to the use of language or human thoughts.
- Content analysis can be performed anytime and anywhere.
Disadvantages of content analysis
- It is quite a time-consuming procedure
- There are high chances of error in the case when the relational analysis is used for the purpose of interpretation of a text.
- It could be quite difficult to automate.
- It comprises of word count.
- Content analysis disregards the context which creates text.
- There are high chances of biasness while performing coding of units.
The procedure of content analysis
Before planning to perform the content analysis for research, you will require to formulate research questions.
For example : Is there any difference in speech given by different candidate on employment issues during social campaign?.
The further process of content analysis in research includes the different phases these are:
Step 1st – Selection of content for analyzing:
It is the research question that you have selected that will help in the selection of text. After making the choice of text you are required to determine the medium that is sources of content which could be a website, speeches, and newspaper. After the selection of medium, you will require to establish a criterion for inclusion such as a newspaper that contains a description of a particular program or website. Then at the next phase, you will need to set parameters such as location, date range. If in case you are planning to analyze the large volume of text then in such a situation you will need to perform sampling for electing few people as simple in research.
For example: Media representing employment issues, and you intend to examine the article in news. As it is large volume of content then you will need to select few newspaper by applying sampling technique.
Step 2nd – Units for content:
It is basically a phase in the content analysis where you are required to establish the standard in order to analyze text. For example, you need to record the frequency of the term. In addition to this, you will also require to determine the categories which will be utilized for the objective of coding.
Step 3rd – Preparation for coding of content:
It is a stage in a content analysis where units are arranged according to the predetermined sequence. Here, it is very much essential for you to clearly define the regulation before performing coding as these tactics will help you in making the methodology more consistent.
For example, considering above example, you have use economy as category .Then you have to determine that which term can relate to employment issue,
Step 4th – Content coding:
You for performing the content-coding is required to record all relevant information in their suitable categories.
Step 5th – Analysis of outcome and Making conclusion It is a phase:
where you are required to examine the information gathered, by doing so you will able to identify pastern and make a conclusion.