Descriptive Research Design – Methods, Advantages & Disadvantages
It is a type of research that will help you in defining the characteristics of the population on which you have performed the study. A descriptive research design enables you to develop an in-depth understanding of the topic or subjects. In such a type of investigation, you can’t have control over variables.
By performing descriptive research, you will be able to study participants in a natural setting. Descriptive research basically includes describing the behavior of people to whom you have select as a participant in the research process.
In addition to this, descriptive research also allows you to describe the other various aspects of your investigation. An important feature is that you can employ a number of variables but you only need a single variable for performing the descriptive investigation.
It is a type of study which includes observation as a technique for gathering facts about the study. You can perform descriptive research for analyzing the relationship between two different variables.
For example, : A company whose sale of specific products such as home decor product is going down. Management, in order to analyze the reason for the same, need to conduct descriptive research. Survey is the data collection technique which research team in an organization can use for collecting the view of people about decline in sale of home décor product.
When to Use Descriptive Research Design
Descriptive research is suitable when you want to analyze the trends, characteristics, or behavior of people. In addition to this, the descriptive research design is appropriate to use when you don’t have much knowledge about the research topics or problems.
Advantages of Descriptive Research
- One of the biggest advantages of descriptive research is that it allows you to analyze facts and helps you in developing an in-depth understanding of the problem.
- Another benefit of descriptive research is that it enables you to determine the behavior of people in a natural setting.
- In such a type of investigation, you can utilize both qualitative and quantitative techniques for gathering facts.
- You need less time for performing such type of research.
Disadvantages of Descriptive Research
- The biggest disadvantage of descriptive research is that you cannot use statistical tools or techniques for verifying problems.
- There are high chances of biases in the outcome of the research.
- Due to the observational nature, it is quite difficult to repeat the research procedure.
- By performing descriptive research you can find the root cause of the problem.
Methods of Descriptive Research Design
You can utilize both Qualitative and Quantitative methods for performing descriptive research. It is very much essential for you to make the choice of suitable research design for investigation as reliability and validity of research outcome are completely based on it. The different methods which you can use in descriptive research are:
- Survey: it is the method that includes a detailed description of the subject or topic. The survey is the method by utilizing which you can collect a huge volume of facts about the topic or subject. You can use a survey technique for directly accumulating information about the perception of people about the topic. The methods which can be applied for performing a survey in descriptive research are questionnaire, telephonic and personal interview. In descriptive studies, generally, open-ended questions are included in a questionnaire.
- Observation: It is basically a technique which researcher utilities for observing and recording participants. By utilizing this technique you can easily view the subject in a natural setting. For example, an investigation is performed for gathering information about the buying decision making procedure by customers. The investigator for collecting the facts about the topic has observed people in shopping malls while they are making the purchase of specific products or services. By using the observation technique you can ensure the accuracy and honesty in the information provided by respondents.
- Case study: You can use the case study techniques for gathering an in-depth understanding of specific phenomena. It is the method which would enable you to study the situation which takes place rarely.