Discourse analysis is basically an analytical technique that is utilized for analyzing language and for identifying the way it is utilized. The main objective of discourse analysis is to develop perception and to classify the meaning, networks, and procedure. In simple words, the main objective of discourse analysis in research is to categorize the data and help in the extraction of meaningful information from it. This type of analysis mainly emphasizes on negotiation, change and production of meaning in relation to power as well as empowerment.
It is basically a qualitative research technique which mainly utilizes in the field of humanities and social science. Material which is required for performing discourse analysis include books, newspaper, etc. You can perform discourse analysis for developing an in-depth understanding of various aspects of communication. Discourse analysis mainly emphasizes on the contextual meaning of language. Discourse analysis is basically an analytical procedure that mainly involves criticizing and deconstructions language utilized in a social context.
For example: Research has been conducted in the medical field for determining whether misunderstanding has taken place between doctor and patients or not. The interview has been organized for gathering the information about the experience and feeling of woman in relation to diagnosis of breast cancer.
While performing discourse analysis in research you are required to mainly emphasize on
- Objective and impact of different kinds of languages.
- Code of conduct in specific culture and principles in the context of communication.
- The way believes ideas and opinions are communicated
- The way language utilized is related to historical, political and social contexts.
Uses of discourse analysis
You can perform discourse analysis for developing an understanding of the functions of language. It can be useful in terms of analyzing the way meaning is generated in various social contexts. By performing the discourse analysis you can gain knowledge about the different social groups and you will able to develop an understanding of the way they communicate. Discourse basically the type of research technique that can be utilized for analyzing the large volume of material. It can also be applied to smaller samples all things depend on the aims, objectives and time period of investigation.
Sources that can be analyzed at the different communication level
|Level of communication||Things that could be analyzed|
|language||This includes analysis of phrases or words|
|sentence structure||Framework of text|
|language rules||It involves the analysis of the way different sentences are structured.|
|Genre||It involves an analysis of political speeches.|
|Non- verbal communication||It includes analysis of gesture, voice, tone, volume, pauses|
|Code used for conversation||Conversation between people, the response provided by the listener.|
The different phases involved in discourse analysis are:
Step1.Designing research question and selecting content for analysis: before beginning to perform discourse analysis in research you are required to identify the research question for which you want to get answers and then you need to define the same. This means that after formulating research questions you are required to choose different materials that could be helpful in getting answers.
For example: Research to be conducted for developing the understanding of the way particular administration transformed dictatorship to democracy that has further highly influenced the businesses and public relationship. You for collecting the information about the same planned to emphasize the identification of mission. In addition to this, you will also to analyze the marketing material such as a brochure, advertisement of five largest organizations during the last five years after the transformation in management system.
Step2.Collection of facts and hypothesis on the context: it is a phase where you are required to gather detailed information about the sources of content. Other details that you will need to gather related to content include the name of the author who has written that content, information about publication and publisher, etc. Construction of theoretical framework and literature review can be written on the subject, as this strategy will help you in supporting your analysis.
For example, you are performing an investigation on the history and politics of the nation. You are collecting the information about history and politics meantime you are conducting research on businesses. You are also performing a study on analyzing the relationship between government and businesses.
Step3.Analysis of content for designing themes: It is the stage in discourse analysis in research where you are required to closely analyze the various components and aspects of material like every word, sentence, paragraph. After analyzing the material closely you need to relate them with the themes or research questions that you have designed.
Example, using the above example where the research on history and politics in the country has been performed. At this phase if you are using the newspaper as a material then you have to closely analyze each sentence, text and opinion of people about the topic.
Step4.Reviewing outcome and Making a conclusion
At this phase of discourse analysis in research, you are required to express your opinion about the findings of the investigation. It is the strategy that will help you in analyzing the meaning and functions of language which is utilized. It is a stage you are required reviewing the analysis performed in terms of wide context which is created by you and has helped in making a conclusion.
Example: in the context of research performed for gathering information about history and politics of nation, the analysis performed by you reveals that the material or article which was published before transformation in management system states that there is a need for change in order to improve quality of services, Whereas, it has been found by material published after changes in the regime that the transformation is required for providing high value to customers. When the comparison between two separate statements in different articles it can be found