Harvard Citations Guide

06/06/2020 | George Orwell | 329

Referencing is basically a crucial part of academic writing. It helps readers in identifying the sources which help readers in determining sources that you have to utilize for writing paper. Doing citations is very much essential in order to avoid the chances of plagiarism. Among different citation styles, Harvard is generally utilized. Many students do wrong formatting of Harvard citation which significantly influences their grades. In this article, our professionals are providing you with complete guidelines on Harvard in-text and reference list citations. It is basically an easy to use comprehensive guide which will provide students with ease in citing a source.

What is the Harvard Reference?

Harvard is basically a style of doing references and citations. Students in university or college generally utilize Harvard references for citing information sources. Students in UK universities generally utilize Harvard style. In the context of the Harvard citation style, you need to do intext citation which may include author and year. At the same time, you also need to provide complete details of sources in the Reference list.

Basics of Harvard citations

A reference list consists of a complete list of different sources that students utilize for creating a piece of work. It is a list that contains information about sources like the name of the author, date of publication, the title of the source. A guide on the Harvard  reference which states that

  • You should include a reference list on a separate page that is at the end of the paper.
  • Students need to organize a reference list alphabetically according to the name of the author. In case there are no authors, then you can arrange a list according to the title of the source.
  • If there are a number of works by a similar author then you can arrange a list according to date. In case works are published in the same year then you can organize list alphabetically according to the title.
  • Double Space: You need to leave a blank line or space between every line of text.
  • You need to include all in-text references in the list which you have utilized in your paper.

Harvard in-text citations

A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets. In Harvard in-text citation, you need to include the name of the author, year of publication, and the page number. You need to include Harvard in-text citation in the main body section of your academic paper.

Example :(Mindson, 2016, p.6).

Note: P is utilized for a single page, pp. for multiple pages.

You need to include in-text citations just after Quotation. Students can also include it at the end of the relevant sentence. If in case  you have already mentioned  the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:

Jimmy introduces the essay’s topic as ‘ Women and fiction’ (2016,p.7), going on to discuss the various connotations of the phrase.

Harvard Citations in the case of  2 ort 3 authors

In case there are two or 3 authors then you need to do citations in Harvard format like this:

Michael, Jennifer and Smith (2018,p. 190) states

Or

(Michael, Jennifer, and Smith,2018,p. 190)

Citations of 4 or more Authors

In this case, you need to write the surname of the first author and after that, you need to put “et.al’.

Michael et.al (2019,p. 190)  statyes…

Or

(Michael et.al, 2019, p, 190)

No author

( A complete guide to referencing, 2019, pp. 190-200)

Multiple works from a similar author in the same year

In case, there are multiple works by the same author in a similar year, then you need to write a letter (a, b, c etc.) after the year. Students need to do allocation in the reference list alphabetically on the basis of the authors’ surname and title source.

(Michael, 2019a, p.200)

or

Michael (2017a, 190)

Citing multiple works in single parentheses:

You need to do citations in a normal way. But you need to put semicolons in between different references.

(Simon, 2019,p.216; Johnson, 220; Anderson, 2014,pp.170-190)

Citations of different editions of similar work in single parentheses

In such a case, you need to include the name of the author only which you need to follow it by dates separated by semicolons.

Michael (2019; 2020) states

or

(Michael, 2017: 2019)

Citations of references with no date

In such a case, you need to just write ‘no date’ in place of the year.

(Michael, no date,p.190)

A technique to do citations of  secondary sources

You need to simply write the reference which you have to utilize which is to be followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author.

Michael 2016 (cited in Jackson, 2015, p.190)

How to cite different types of sources in Harvard style?

  • In relation to Harvard style, in-text citations remain the same across different types of sources.
  • But there is variations in reference list across different sources.

A technique to Cite a book in Harvard Format

Doing citations of books at Harvard style is basically very simple. The basic format which you need to follow is

A surname of the author, initial, (publication year) Title.Editio. Place of publication. Publisher.

Example: Gordon, K.L. and Jimsen, L (2018) A complete guide to references. 3rd. eds. UK London. London Publications.

Tip to do Harvard citations of an edited book

Edited books are basically a collection of different chapters of books published by different authors. You need to do citations in the same manner as of the book. But the exception is that you need to write the name of the editor instead of the author. below is the format

A surname of editors, initial. (eds.) ( year of publication). Title.Edition. Location of publication: publishers.

Example: Wilson, J.T.(eds.)(2018) A complete guide on referencing rules. New York: XYZ publisher.

The technique to do Harvard  citations of a chapter in an edited book

Name of author. (year of publication).” Title of chapter” in the surname of an editor , initials (eds.).Title of the book . Edition. Place of publications: Publisher, page numbers.

Example:

Tom K.N.(2018) ‘ Referencing rules” in Wilson, K.T.(ed.) A complete guide to referencing rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp. 40-45.

Citations of E-book in Harvard business review

In relation to doing citations of E-book in Harvard format, you need to provide information about collections, online location, data when you have access source, name of the author, title, year of publication, etc.

A surname of Author, initials. ( year of publication). Title. name of e-book collections [Online]. Available at: URL ( Access day, month year).

Example

Jameson, M.A., Pearson, K., and crane, P.R.(2019) A complete guide to research paper. E-book library [ONLINE]. Available at : https:// www.studentsassignment.com/ reference-guideline/ reference-manager(Accesed 15 october 2020)

Tips to cite a journal article in Harvard style

Name of author 9year)’ Title of article’, Title, volume (season), page numbers.

Smith, M.L.’ How changes in reforms have shaken the corporate world’, The Mendeley,68(9), p75-90.

Citations of a newspaper article in Harvard format

The surname of author, initial.(year)’ Title of Article’, Title of newspaper9ieds), day month, page number.

Mytha, J.K.(2018)’ changes in political reforms has shaken the corporate world’, Memndley telegraph (Weekend edition), 8 August, pp. 14-18.

The technique of citing Online Journal in Harvard format

The surname of author, initials.(year) “Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume( issue) [Online]. Available at: URL.

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online]. Available at: URL

How to cite non-printed material in Harvard format?

Online photograph

Photograph surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Example: Cinderellas , L.M. (1951-1956) Ophelia[online]. Available at:  www.tate.org.USA/art/artworks/Cinderellas-n-01620 ,(Accessed: 25 June 2019)

Film

Format: Title of film ( distribution year) Directed by name of directorrr[Format]. Place of distribution: Company of distribution.

Window rear (1960) Directed by Alfred [film]. Los Angeles: Paramount publications.

TV program

‘Title of episode’ ( transmission year) Title of TV shows, series #, episode #.Name of the channel, day, or month of transmission.

Example :’Fly'(2018) Breaking bad, Series 3, episode 20.AMC, 24 June 2020.

Music

Basic citations structure is:

Name of artist ( publication year) Title of Album {format] location of distribution, name of distributing company. Available at: URL ( Accessed: day, month, year)

For instance: Justin Hawkins(20018) Heart Explodes [Visual album] the UK: Parkewoods records. Available at: https://www.jusdtinhawkins.com/aalbum/Heart Explodes- visual -album/ ( Accessed :19 March 2018).

Website

Format: Surname of author, initials. ( publication year)  title of the website[Online[. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Example: Jame, M.A.(2015) How and when to write a research paper [Online]. Available through: https:// www.how and when to write research paper.com/ ( Accessed :25 Jan. 2016)

How to cite a case study using the Harvard citations style?

The selection of citations style is completely dependent on the source of the case study.

  • If students found the case study in an academic journal, then they need to reference it in the same manner as an academic journal article.
  •  In case you found it on a website, reference it as you would a webpage.
  •  If you found it in a database such as Market Line, reference it as you would a market report.

Still, have confusion about Harvard citations format? Seek professional assistance

If you still have any confusion related to format of citations in Harvard or other style then you can seek assistance from our professionals. Our expert team of student assignment help will help you in determining an appropriate format of citation style for your assignment. We also provide students with assignment writing and editing services at reasonable costs.

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