What is Validity in Research?
Validity is basically a concept that is utilized for testing the relationship between cause and effect. It is all about the accuracy and consistency of measures. Validity in research can be categorized into two, these are internal and external validity. These are basically two concepts that are applied for ensuring that the outcome of the investigation can be trusted and it contains meaning.
For Example: when temperature of water is measured at regular interval of time in same situation. The tool used for measuring the temperature of water shows the different temperature every time especially in a case when an individually have properly controlled the situation for making sure that temperature remain similar. It is considered to be as tool used for measuring temperature of water is defective and therefore, measurement are invalid. If tool used for measuring temperature shows the different temperature each time then measurement can be considered to be as highly valid.
What is internal validity?
Internal validity is the technique to measure the effectiveness of research. It is mainly concerned with a way investigation procedure has been performed by the researcher. Internal validity can be considered to be as your research report contains the proof that the design you have selected for research represents the things that have been actually observed. Internal validity can also be referred to as extend up to which outcome of the investigation could be generalized.
Example: A person has developed special; type of application for reducing the bad mood. Participants are selected randomly and two groups are formed. One group task is to utilize the application and other team is responsible for controlling the activities. Person performing investigation has confirm the elimination of biasness in formation of group. The different components of the study were measured such as economic and social status of participants, age , gender etc. along with mood. But here researcher has asked participants to use app only in the office where the investigation is being performed.
Importance of internal validity
Internal validity is very much crucial as without it there is no relationship between cause and effect that can be developed.
How to measure internal validity
You can make a comparison between the responses provided by participants with that of the purpose of investigation. For example, you can make a comparison between self-reported amounts of cigar smoking with the special purpose of measuring the cutinize level in breath. The investigation performed by you would be considered to be highly valid if you will able to provide a proper explanation of findings.
What is external validity?
External validity is mainly concerned with the applicability of the findings drawn from the investigation in real-life situations. It can be referred to as extend up to which conclusion drawn from a particular investigation procedure could be made applicable in other circumstances. For example, if the findings drawn from the research are applicable to other circumstances then in such case investigation in highly valid.
Example: Using the same example given in internal validity, but this time investigator has permitted participants for utilizing the specific application at their homes. Investigator has clearly defined the population and provided the justification for selecting a representative sample which indicates research is highly externally validated.
Importance of external validity
External validity is crucial as if in case the cause is address but still, you will not be able to generalize your findings. It is the type of validity that could be enhanced by facilitating experiments in more natural arrangements and also by utilizing the random sampling technique for selecting the participants. For example, Rama is worried by the result which she has obtained during 20 would not be applicable to those who were not there in the 20s.
How to measure external validity?
The technique for testing the external validity is to facilitate the investigation again but with different populations or in different situations.
Difference between internal and external validity
|Basis||Internal validity||External validity|
|Relation||Internal validity is mainly related to the framework of investigation and also to different components of the study.||External validity is related to the way the outcome of any research is applicable to other situations.|
|Representation||It demonstrates the formal relation between different components of research.||It indicates the generality of investigation.|
|Dependability||Internal reliability in research is highly based on the way different processes are being performed.|
|Focus||You in order to make your research highly validate will require concentrating on selection of strong methodology for investigation and also on the accuracy of your findings.|
It mainly emphasizes representing the gap that has occurred because of single independent variable.
|Here, you will need to concentrate on making the findings of your investigation applicable to other similar situations.|
|Controlling||Control on extra variables in the study||Control on generalization of findings|
|Findings||Warranty is provided for the conclusion.||Outcomes can be applied practically.|
|Factors that could cause risk||Historical Events: Such events might negatively affect the findings of research over a period of time. For instance, changes in political situations.|
Instrumentation: It basically includes the instrument used by you for testing actually has an effect on participants.
|Replication: It mainly includes conducting investigation again but by using different sample sizes or in different situations.|
Reprocessing: Such a factor involves utilizing the statistical instruments for making adjustments in issues.