Research Methods – Effective Techniques for Performing Investigation

02/11/2020 | George Orwell | 753

The research method is basically the technique that is used by the researcher for performing different activities during the investigation. The selection of an appropriate research method is very much essential as it has a significant influence on the outcome. The reliability and validity of the research are also based on a method used for performing investigation on a specific topic. The different types of research methodology which are generally used for conducting t
he investigation are:

What is the research type?

The research type basically involves the kind of investigation to be conducted. Before starting the investigation process based on the problem identified or the nature of the subject you have to decide which type of investigation to be conducted.

qualitative and quantitative research method:

Two basic types of research that are generally executed by researchers are quantitative and qualitative investigation.

  • Qualitative research can be referred to as a scientific technique of collecting the non-numerical data. Such type of investigation mainly involves great detail about the subject. For instance, a structured questionnaire has been designed for gathering information about the views of employees about the effect of globalization on their company.
  • You can perform Quantitative research for gathering numerical data.

For example, Research conducted for analyzing the influence of globalization on the financial performance of the company in the last two years. The type of research  researcher should perform is completely dependent on the nature of the subject.

What is the research design

Research design is the assumption of researchers about the techniques which researcher can use  for performing different activities such as data collection, analysis, and interpretation during the time of the investigation. Research design  is a strategy which  researcher  apply for combining the different components in the study.

Types of research designs

The different type of research designs is exploratory, experimental, explanatory, Descriptive and Experimental.

  • Exploratory research design  you can select for those investigations where other researcher has not clearly study the problem. It helps an investigator in developing an in-depth understanding of the topic. In addition to this, an exploratory research design also enables the researcher to explore hidden facts.
  • Explanatory research design  in research method you can apply in those investigations which include the problems on which  other researcher has not perform detail study. For instance. The investigation conducted for analyzing the reason for the decline in the sale of a specific product. It is the research design which provides researcher ease in explaining the different aspects of the phenomenon.
  • Experimental research design is a quantitative research technique that you can apply for conducting scientific experiments. It is the research design that will help you in analyzing the influence of the independent variable on dependent variables. For instance, the experiment conducted for determining the influence of parents’ genetic disorder on the development of the child.
  • Descriptive research design is a scientific technique which includes observation of phenomenon or situation. Such a type of research design will help you in providing in detail description of the situation

Types of research designs

What is the research approach?

The research approach in research method is basically Plan which researcher develops by making the assumption about the techniques or methodologies that  they can use for gathering, analyzing and interpreting information. The research approach can be categorized into two these are inductive and deductive.

Types of research approaches

  • An inductive research approach begins with aims, objectives, research questions which researcher needs to accomplish  by facilitating investigation. Observation, analysis of pattern is two basic techniques which researcher mainly uses  for the collection of data. For example, the investigation executed for analyzing the influence of labor migration on the formulation of a diverse team in companies in the EU. The research question here is how labor migration has influenced the formation of a diverse workforce in EU based enterprises.
  • The deductive research approach starts with the development of theories. It also involves the accumulation of data for testing the theories. It is a research approach which mainly enables the researcher to design new models or concepts and test the same. The choice of research approach  which researcher want to use is completely dependent on the nature of the problem.

What is the research philosophy in research method?

Research philosophy is basically the belief of different authors about the way investigation to be conducted.

Types of research philosophy

The two types of research philosophies are interpretive and positivism.

  • Positivism research philosophy is basically a  assumption that an individual can gain  knowledge about the facts by experiencing or observing things.
  • Interpretivism research philosophy research method is a naturalistic approach in which  researcher uses observation and interview technique for collecting information about the subject.

Method used for data collection

Data collection is one of the crucial research method in the investigation procedure. Data collection is the activity of accumulating facts or figures on a specific topic or subject.  You can gather Information about a particular topic mainly from primary and secondary sources. The data which researcher collects directly from the respondent is a primary data. The secondary information  researcher  generally  collect using books, journals, magazines, etc.

Techniques of data collection in research method

The choice of technique for the collection of data is completely based on the knowledge you want to gain. A few research method which researcher can apply for the collection of facts include interviews, observation, and questionnaires.  In the interview and questionnaire technique, you have to design the questions to be asked from participants. You need to design questions on the basis of the aims and objectives of research that you want to achieve by conducting an investigation. The other technique of gathering information is to observe things around you, it the best technique for collecting primary data.

The technique of being applied for an accumulation of facts is completely based on the scale of investigation. For example, if the you are conducting research  on a small scale then the interview technique for data collection can be helpful.

What is sampling?

It is the technique of selecting a few people from a large population as a sample in research. While selecting a few people as participants in the investigation it is very much essential for researchers to make sure that the respondent chosen represents the whole population..

Different types of sampling techniques in research methods

The numbers of techniques that can be applied for selecting samples are random sampling technique, cluster, stratified, purposive, etc.

  • Purposive sampling :  Researcher generally apply Purposive sampling  research  methods when the researcher is aware of the people from whom the information about specific phenomena could be gathered.
  • Random sampling: In random sampling technique you need to select participants by chance. In stratified sampling, you have to categorize population in small teams then from that you need to select few people as participants in research. Students can apply the random sampling technique when the sample size is very large. Among different sampling technique random is the best as it assists the investigator in eliminating biases.

What is data analysis in Research methods?

Data analysis can be defined as the refinement of raw data in order to extract meaningful information. The data analysis activity in the investigation process assists investigators in reaching to a conclusion. There are two methodologies that can be utilized for analyzing the data these are qualitative and quantitative.

Techniques of data analysis

  • Quantitative data analysis: In quantitative research, statistical and mathematical techniques which researcher use for analyzing data.
  • Qualitative data analysis mainly includes references or Quotes which is very much essential in order to support findings. In addition to this, the thematic analysis technique can also be applied for analysis information in Qualitative research. In the thematic analysis, the researcher designs different themes on the basis of Questions and answers. It is the data analysis technique that helps the researcher in analyzing the pattern of responses provided by participants. Thematic analysis technique enables the researcher to make research reports presentable and easily understandable by the reader.
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