Survey Research Definition, How to Do (Procedure) Explained
Survey research is basically a research method which is applicable to the accumulation of facts in order to develop an in-depth understanding of the research topic. You can also consider a survey to be as in the detail examination of the procedure or human behavior. A survey is a type of investigation which researcher conduct for developing understanding about characteristics of the population.
In the survey, you need to analyze responses of respondents by applying statistical techniques that will help you in reaching to a conclusion. The important benefit of the survey is that it provides ease in easily reaching and engaging with the audience.
The main objective of the survey research is to gain valuable insight into the topic or subject.
For example: In-depth investigation which an organization perform for gathering information about customers opinion about newly launch products. It is the data which company has gather through the survey which will help management in determining the need for further improvement in newly launch products.
Use of Survey Research
A survey is useful when you have to collect information about preferences, opinions, and feelings of people. You can also utilize it for accumulating facts by directly communicating with participants and asking them questions relevant to subject or topic. It is the type of research methodology which researcher mainly use in Qualitative research.
Survey also has another type of uses such as:
- Social survey:You can perform such type of research for gathering in-depth information about the characteristics and experiences of different groups of people.
- Market survey: It is the market research which companies performs in order to get insight into the opinions of customers about goods or services. Such kinds of research, researcher mainly use for collecting information about the entire market.
- Health survey: Researcher use such types of surveys for accumulating facts about symptoms of disease. Information about the different treatments of specific illnesses.
- Politics survey: It is the type of survey which researcher performs for gathering information about people opinion about politics.
- Psychology: Researcher use such types of research for collecting information about personality traits, preferences of people.
The procedure for conducting the survey
The process of conducting a survey consists of different phases these are :
Establishment of objectives
It is the initial phase where you need to set the objective of conducting the survey. While setting objectives you need to be sure that it is narrowly scoped. You need to note down the questions for which you want to get answers by performing the survey. This is the type of investigation which is useful where the sample size of the population is very large.
For instance, your objective for conducting the survey is to gather information about customer’s opinions about the business procedure .
Determination of types of surveys
This is the phase where you need to decide which type of survey you want to execute. The two basic types of survey which researcher generally perform are :
- Interview: This is a type of survey where the interview designs the list of questions that you need to ask from the audience personally or through telephone.
- Questionnaire: It is a type of survey where a list of questions which researcher need to ask from participants .
- Sharing form through e-mail:- It is basically one of the best strategies which researcher apply for collecting demographic information.
Identification of target audience:
This is the most important phase. Before starting to perform you have set some objectives which will help you in identifying the target audience. A target audience is basically a group of people from whom you will gather information about specific topics or subjects.
It is a phase where you need to identify the people from whom you will collect information from. In the context of survey two main factors that is the availability of time and budget will help you in determining the size of the sample . The selection of the appropriate sample is very much important in order to produce accurate outcomes.
Designing and prioritizing the survey questions
It is a stage where you will require designing questions. At the time of designing research questions you need to keep in mind the objectives of survey. You can include both open-ended and close-ended questions.
- Open-ended questions: It is the technique applying which you can provide respondents with an opportunity to express their opinion. Such type of questions in the questionnaire form does not contain options.
- Close-ended questions: In closed-ended questions, respondents are given with options from which they have to select one.
Distribution of survey form, and gathering information
You can use E-mail For distribution of survey form. In addition to this, you can personally distribute the survey form to participants. You can use online survey for collecting information about topics or subjects from a large number of audiences.
Analyzing the information
You can apply the statistical techniques or mathematical techniques for analyzing the information which you have gather through the survey.
Techniques for Measuring the Reliability of Survey Result
While designing the questionnaire for a survey you need to emphasize every research question and you need to make sure that all the questions are relevant to the topic. While formulating the close-ended questions it is very much essential for you to confirm that option which you have given cover all probabilities, as this technique will help you in ensuring the validity and reliability of survey results.