Types Of Assessment

08/14/2019 | George Orwell | 1240

What Is An Assessment –

In terms of education, assessment is basically a wide range of methods that mentors utilizes for determining the skills, knowledge, and progress of students on a particular subject . It makes use of empirical data to examine the skills of students.An assessment involves the method of collecting information from various sources to deeply get the understanding of student’s knowledge.

Assessment  is the systematic method to make inferences about the learning and development of students. It is basically  the method of defining, gathering, analyzing, interpreting. This process also includes using the information for enhancing the  students learning and development. The assessment is  the systematic collection, review, and use of information about the educational program for checking the learning and improving students skills.

Sometimes assessments are taken equivalent to conventional tests. There are certain standardized tests   which teachers uses for determining overall skills from a four-year-old’s readiness for kindergarten to a twelfth-grade student’s.

As your different subjects have different functions and characteristics, similarly assessments  aims to measures different skills in a student. As an instance:

  1. The knowledge that student already has through their learning.
  2. Skills taught by the teachers.
  3. The capacity of students to analyze various forms of text and reading.

You can also use assessments for determining the weaknesses and strengths of each student. So that the teacher can give special extra support to them according to that. Moreover, people who mainly perform  assessments are 

  1. Tutors
  2. District administrators
  3. Universities
  4. Public and private organizations
  5. Education departments
  6. Groups etc.
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Applications Of Assessment

There are a variety of applications of assessments for different purposes and that is:

  1. The application of assessment is applicable for measuring the skills and knowledge of students through different processes.
  2. These tools are applicable at the program and course levels.
  3. It enables to maintain the student’s goal of learning.
  4. Assessments also aims at measuring the strengths and weaknesses of students and putting more efforts for that purpose.

Fundamental Components Of Assessment:

There are four fundamental components that are necessary for assessment:

  • No.1 -Formulating statements of intentional learning outcomes

Statements that describe the intentions related to students about what they can do with the knowledge they have acquired by their learning process.

  • No.2 – Developing or selecting assessment measures

Developing the measures to come to know whether the desired learning outcome achieved by the process or not. It basically consists of:                                                                                                                                                               Direct assessments: These type of assessments include the determination:

  1. Oral exams
  2. Interviews
  3. Portfolios
  4. Clinical evaluations
  5. Case studies
  6. Performances
  7. Exhibitions
  8. Papers/ thesis
  9. Products
  10. Project

Indirect Assessments: Indirect assessments are basically a self-report measures. These reports can be surveys. In this type of reports, the tutors do the analysis of the overall knowledge of the students and how efficient they are to utilize that knowledge.

  • No.3 – Creating experiences leading to outcomes

These reports are prepared to get the surety about students having knowledge of both the inside and outside the courses. With this, they are able to gain the desired learning results.

  • No.4 – Analyzing and using the assessment outcomes for the improvement of teaching and learning

These assessments can be used to enhance the performance of each student with the help of their outcomes.

The Assessment Cycle

The above described fundamental components are transcribed into an assessment cycle. The assessment cycle consists of four stages i.e. plan, do, check and act.

  • Stage 1 – Plan: What the students should learn?

The first fundamental component of assessment i.e. formulating statements of intentional learning outcomes connects with this stage.

  • Stage 2 – Do: How effectively I teach?

The second and third fundamental components of an assessment are connected with this cycle, i.e. developing or selecting assessment measures and creating experiences leading to outcomes.

  • Stage 3 – Check: Do the outcomes similar to what I have expected?

This stage deals with the valuation of assessment data. This stage is a portion of the fourth fundamental component.

  • Stage 4 – Act: What is the best use of the things that I have learned?

This stage involves reinforcing successful practices and making revisions to enhance student learning. This is also a portion of the fourth stage.

Types Of Assessment:

  • Type 1 – High Stake Assessments

These are standardized tests which people generally utilises with the aim of accountability. These are the assessments  which the federal, state or local government agencies  maintain to get the surety that the schools in which students get admitted are valuable along with the valuable teachers. High stakes assessments are important for the decisions related to teachers, students, schools or districts on the basis of the scores  which students  has achieve in such tests. And it will decide whether they need punishments or accolades on the basis of these scores.

The punishments might include:

  1. Restriction from being a graduate.
  2. Restriction from promotion to next grade.
  3. Bad promotion.
  4. Reduction in funding.
  5. Penalties
  6. Sanctions

 The accolades might include:

  1. Diplomas
  2. Promotion in grades
  3. Bonuses
  4. Good publicity
  5. Public celebration
  6. Awards
  • Type 2 – Pre Assessments Or Diagnostic Assessments

People  conduct such assessment before starting a chapter, syllabus or academic program. Here, it is not necessary that students should know the materials  which is use for the valuation of assessments. These type of assessments  students mainly use for the establishment of baseline with respect to which the mentors assess progress in learning knowledge during the particular period. You can utilize such assessments for the measurement of normal academic inclination of a student to enter into the new grade level, syllabus or program.

  • Type 3 – Formative Assessments

It is also known as in-process evaluations of students grabbing knowledge during the course. Students generally conduct such type of assessment numerous times during the completion process of a chapter, syllabus or academic program. The main aim of these types of assessments is to provide feedback to the tutors about the about what knowledge student is acquiring and whatnot .
These can be conducted in various forms such as:

    1. In the form of formal quizzes and academic projects or assignments.
    2. In the form of informal questioning methods and in-class talks with men tees.
  • Type 4- Summative Assessments

These types of assessments people conduct usually at the end of a chapter, syllabus, semester or year. It aims at getting the conclusion of what students gained as a whole in a particular period of time. You can use this for scoring or grading purposes. Teacher gives number of assessments to students  in order to evaluate whether the students have acquired what they are supposed to be, during a particular period of time.

The common difference between formative and summative assessments is that the formative one you can use for learning. Tutors utilize the results of summative assessment  for the modification and enhancement of their teaching skills over a particular period of time. Whereas people use summative assessments  for learning’ because this aims at determining the academic achievement and coursework writing skills of students at the end of the particular period of teaching.

  • Type 5 – Interim or benchmark assessments

These types of assessments you can use for determining the students progress during the academic period. And either or not they are able to perform satisfactorily in the upcoming assessments. The upcoming assessments might include course ending exams, standardized tests, etc. You can perform interim assessments are normally within a particular interval of time in any academic course. For example,  you might conduct within every four or six weeks of time and etc.

  • Type 6 – Placement assessments

You can  utilize placement assessments in order to “place” scholars into a course, course level or academic program. As an instance,  you can perform an assessment for  developing understanding whether the scholars are prepared to enter in Algebra or more enhanced version of the algebra course. Due to this, you can conduct the placement assessments  before starting a particular syllabus or course. The central objective of the placement assessment is to match scholars with suitable learning experiences that tackle their difference in learning needs.

  • Type 7 – Screening assessments

You can utilize these types of assessments for evaluating if the student requires some more special assistance or are they already able to start a new course or academic program. There can be many sorts of screening assessments during an educational program.

These assessments can be either:

  1. Academic
  2. Physical
  3. Developmental
  4. Or cognitive

The purpose of a preschool screening test is to evaluate if the child is fit to enter the preschool in all terms. This type of assessment mainly  concentrates on the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual condition of the student. Whereas the other screening tests emphasizes on the evaluation of health, potential learning disabilities and other factors important for students.

  • Type 8 – Standardized assessments

These assessments emphasizes  on the evaluation in standard or reliable way. Some might consist of open-ended and short answer questions pattern. Traditionally, standardized tests featured rows of ovals that students fill in with a number-two pencil. But with the time,  there has been change in the pattern. Now it take the form of computer-based tests. You can use such tests for the large population of students sharing the same age group or educational level. Students can conduct it either state wise, region wise or country wise and results are assessed accordingly.

  • Type 9 – Standards-referenced or standards-based assessments

The main purpose of these assessments is to evaluate the mastery of students for any particular skill or acquaintance. You can measure the skills either locally, state-wise or on the national level. Both standards references or standards-based assessments and high stake assessments either or not conducted on the basis of any particular learning standards. Through this, each school and teachers might develop their own standards-referenced or standards-based assessments.

  • Type 10 – Common assessments

It aims at whether or not the teachers are determining the performance of students in a more steady  and efficient way. The aim of assessments is to bring more consistency in teaching and evaluation.You can conduct it either at the grade level, branch or content area. It aims at allowing the tutors to make the comparison of performance results within various classes, syllabuses, schools, etc. and that is actually impossible if tutors use to teach distinct learning materials. These types of assessments have a similar layout .

We can see the examples of common assessments as the tutors providing similar instructions and quantity of time to the students for the completion of the assessment process. Using similar grading methods to bring results for the students. Common assessments might be either summative or formative.

  • Type 11 – Performance Assessments

These type of assessments mostly need students to accomplish a difficult  task or job.

Such tasks may be either of the following:

  1. Short or long duration project
  2. Performance
  3. Presentation
  4. Speech
  5. Science experiment
  6. Academic assignment etc.

The methods  which the tutors can utilize for determining if the tasks  which students are doing  exactly depicts that they have got the same skills and knowing what  they were supposed to be :

  1. Rubrics
  2. Scoring guides
  3. Common assessments
  4. And many other methods

Performance assessments  is basically a ‘authentic assessments’ because of the fact that these assessments are suppose to be more exact. Theses assessments are significant  in relation to evaluations of learning achievements .

  • Type 12 – Portfolio-based assessments

These types of assessments are seen as the collections of different academic tasks such as:

  1. Art projects
  2. Student-created films
  3. Speeches
  4. Writing samples
  5. Lab results
  6. Assignments

You can collect  Portfolio material in physical or digital formats, and they are often evaluated to determine whether students have met required learning standards.

  • Type 13 – Confirmative assessments

These types of assessments  you can use for evaluating whether your instructions applicable to the students, it is still mandatory to conduct the assessment. The aim of the confirmative assessment is to determine if your instructions are still working in the next year or you have to do the necessary amendments. You have to assess whether the method you are using to teach is still working or not.

  • Type 14 – Norm-referenced assessment

These types of assessments you can use for assessing the scholar’s performance against an average norm. The example of this type of assessment can be seen as the average national norm for subject history. Let’s look at another example of norm reference assessment; the tutor compares the average grades of the students that he or she teaches with the average grade of the school as a whole.

  • Type 15 – Criterion-referenced assessment

These sorts of assessments  you can use for determining the performances of students on the basis of a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. It is the assessment to calculate the overall syllabus and skills taught in a duration of course.

  • Type 16 – Ipsative assessment

These types of assessments  you can use for evaluating the performance of a student by comparing it with his or her own previous performances. It can help students to enhance their results comparing it with the previous one. Here you are not going to compare yourself with other students. Comparing with other students could leave a bad impact on your self-confidence.

The main purpose of an Assessment

Each assessment has a different purpose of its own. The aim of any assessment generally depends on the way it is formulated. There are varieties of methods to use the assessment. The best example of formative and summative assessments is the portfolio of overall work and skills of students. To assess the students on the basis of a single course or grade level in a school, there are certain assessments named teacher-created assessment. These assessments either by a single tutor or group of tutors. This can never term as high stakes.

Reform of assessments

Educational assessments are active with the most traditional time when the school consists of a small room. They are continuously been increasing with time in order to enhance the efficacy of public school and teaching. o measure the performance of the school, teacher and school system.

With the development of high tech world, the applications of computers, etc have been increased in schools, therefore the assessment writing tests are also started by using computer-based or online tests. But still, there is an importance of paper-based tests in its own way. Digital assessment systems offer a lot more features as compared to traditional tests and assessments.

The digital assessment systems provide the facility to students to log in and give assessments after the class timings too and the results are available immediately after completing the tests. The traditional assessment methods need many hours, days or weeks of time for the teacher to assess and review the test papers and assign scores or grades.

As an instance, teachers can examine the duration of time a student took to answer a particular question or the number of time a student failed to provide the right answer for a particular question.With this detailed information, tutors can do the modifications in the educational programs, instructional approaches, etc that can enhance the learning experiences.


Method 1  System and school accountability

People generally use assessments  with the aim of increasing the academic achievements  and the teaching skills of students. There is law showcasing that students studying between grades 3 to 8 need to undergo test at least once in a year.The laws also report that standardized tests have been implemented to calculate the efficiency of students to meet the learning standards.

According to Law You need to present test results  individually

  1. Children with special needs.
  2. Students from a low-income household.
  3. Minority students etc.

These laws aimed at filling the achievement gaps improving the performances of schools that are underperforming.

Method 2 – Teacher evaluation and compensation

Most of the educational reformers and other similar official have declared in the past few years that the most effective method to enhance the performance of students and their results only comes with the surety that they have most skilled and effective teachers teaching to them. The best method to check the efficiency of the tutors is to  make evaluation on the basis of scores which students has obtain in the tests or assessments. You can utilize certain value-added measures, also known as growth measures which you can utilize for calculating the positive or negative impact of each teacher on the academic performance of their students.

Method 3 – Instructional improvement

The results which you obtain through assessments  can  utilize for enhancing the instructional quality and accomplishment of the scholar. With the help of formative assessment, the teacher can get the in-process feedback on what the student is learning, so that they can make adjustments to their teaching process accordingly. They don’t need to wait until the completion of any course or syllabus to know the efficiency of the learning process of the student. The other assessment types namely standards-based assessments or common assessments promote the tutors to teach the same course again and again and measure the efficiency of scholar in a more efficient manner.

Method 4 – Learning needs identification

Tutors use a wide range of assessment methods to determine the special needs of students and that is:

  • Check eligibility for a particular subject or course.
  • Appraise the language ability of students.
  • Diagnosing learning disabilities such as autism, dyslexia, or nonverbal learning disabilities
  • Identifying the different learning needs of students.

The current education world mainly emphasizes on the early detection of the learning needs and disabilities of students for better improvement.

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