When the college or school have completed their research and finally have written it in the form of an essay, then they can present it in front of the readers. However, it can be challenging for the students to convince the readers that the research done is efficient and is highlighting something unique unless the students present some of the proofs.
The situation gets solved when the students prepare a useful bibliography at the end of the research work. A bibliography refers to a list of sources which students have to mention while writing a research paper.
It would not matter for the audience how much clear and concise argument presented by the students is until the students provide some proof, facts, or pieces of evidence. It is easy for the college students to claim the argument, but unless they have some effects, quotes, or figures to back up, any of the research remains an opinion. Any of the sources searched or visited by the students for dealing with the research procedure should get included in the bibliography part.
What is the definition of bibliography?
As Biblio refers to “relating a book or books” and graphy means “descriptive science” so when two terms are put together bibliography get defined. The bibliography is the description of the books which get used by the school or college students during their research process. It has become an essential part which the students have to include in the organized research.
The point or significance of the bibliography is to make the audience aware that which of the sources get used by the students during the research project. It directly means that the college students have to include all such references which they have used irrespective of the fact that they had quoted from that source or not.
Generally, bibliography means that the students have to prepare a list of sources. The record made by the school or college students will compile the sources at the end of the research work so that the readers can easily find that where the research has come from.
Each reference included by the students in the bibliography step should consist of essential bibliography components, namely:
- Name of the author
- Title of the resource from which research was conducted
- Publisher’s information along with names, location, and dates
- Page numbers
However, it all depends on the reference system used by the students to prepare bibliography which type of information they need to provide. Small but significant bibliography sources can be useful to build up the interest among the readers.
Why do students require a bibliography?
A bibliography is necessary to get prepared, which will prove that the sources chosen by the college students for conducting research are reputable or not. It does not mean that bibliography will not protect the readers from getting fake or fraud information.
A well-prepared bibliography will help the students while backing up with the researched materials plus offer protection from writing like others. One of the significant purposes of preparing the bibliography is to give credit that deserves it. Bibliography in research shows that from where the ideas of students arise when they develop a neat list at the end of the task.
An adequately prepared bibliography can also help future researchers when the college or school students in the future will search on the same subject than might consider the paper written by the present student. It can be beneficial for the students to have a clear and concise list, including all the sources from which they get information.
The list mentioned by the college students in the bibliography part should include all the researched material which they have consulted throughout the research paper writing. It does not matter whether the students have the quoted statements from the sources or not if they reached it, then they have to mention in the bibliography list.
Types of bibliography
A bibliography is a list containing the specific details about the various sources of information which the college students have included in the research. In a bibliography, college or school, students have to list sources such as newspapers, books, articles, websites, and other content from academic journals.
There are mainly three types of bibliography on which the students have to work upon, namely:
- Enumerative bibliography: When college students are dealing with such kind of bibliography, then it means they have to list the references according to some effective arrangement. Often most of the students writing a bibliography for research papers include enumerative bibliography.
The college or school students have to arrange bibliographies by author’s name, subject, date, or any other scheme. The items or stuff shared by the students along with such bibliography include a common language, topic, or period. The students need to provide some useful information about the sources so that they can direct the readers easily.
The college students don’t need to involve any of the descriptive information like details about the physical qualities while dealing with the enumerative bibliography. Some of the best enumerative bibliography examples are card catalogue, proper list of references in a research paper, and the work cited in the history book.
- Analytical bibliography: To critically study the books, many of the scholar students write such type of bibliography. The college or school students may include some of the information related to the printers, booksellers, or descriptions about the issues in the bibliography. For dealing with the analytical bibliography efficiently, it becomes imperative that the students start thinking clearly about the sources and information which they want to explain. The analytical bibliography is further divided into three components, namely, descriptive bibliography, historical bibliography, and textual bibliography.
The descriptive-analytical bibliography carefully examines or describes the physical nature of the book. The students have to not go in-depth for finding information from different sources. A historical analytical bibliography discusses the context or describes the details in which album got produced. The readers can find some of the basic ideas about past events when they go through analytical bibliography. The importance of bibliography is that it gives the comparison between the works published by the author from their original manuscript.
- Annotated bibliography: While preparing for such type of bibliography, students have to create an alphabetical list of sources along with the proper citation style. The college students have to outline the kind of research which they have done on a specific topic in the annotated bibliography. The school scholars have the chance to annotate or add notes related to the used sources. In short, while giving information about the causes, the students can also give their opinions or comments on the source about which they are discussing. Even the students working as a writer for the bibliography can summarise the information provided.
It requires providing useful information about the content related to each reference. The students can even access to prepare a perfect annotated bibliography. It means that the scholars have to evaluate the usefulness and importance of the sources which they have consulted while working on the research paper. By reflecting on the primary concern, the students can discuss their perspective on the usefulness of the content for the conducted research.
Format of bibliography
There are many different referencing systems which the college students can use for citing their writing work and bibliography. It depends on several factors that which of the format will be best suitable for preparing a bibliography.
The most frequently used bibliography format systems are
- Modern Language Association (MLA)
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)
- Harvard System of Referencing
The entries list in the bibliography should be in the proper alphabetical order along with the last name of the first author. However, if the students are using two publications written by the same author, then the correct order and format will depend on the style guide.
- In bibliography APA format style, the college students have to list the duplicate entries of author’s name in the chronological order of publication by placing the earliest first. The author’s name can get used for all the entries.
- In the bibliography MLA format or any other style, college students should list the duplicate entries of the author in the alphabetical order according to the title of the work done. For the first entry, the name of the author should get written as usual, but for the second entry, students should replace the name with the three long dashes.
For more than one author, bibliography formatting style varies. Whether the students are using title casing or sentence-style on the title of resources or whether they had separated elements from periods or commas also depends on the different style guides.
Difference between bibliography and reference list
Most of the college or school students believe that reference list or work cited and a bibliography both are the same things. While it is true both the terms share, some of the similar things and some of the features are equal but still there exist some points of differences between the two. There are many academic papers in which the college students get asked to write both lists of references and bibliography at the end of the research work. It means that there are some of the significant differences.
In short, all reference lists can get considered as bibliography, but the reverse is not valid. All bibliographies do not refer to as work cited or reference list.
General points of difference between the bibliography and reference list are
- The list made by the students for the work cited is highly essential because it can protect the other students from writing the duplicate content. However, the bibliography and citation list not only information about the plagiarism part but also ensures the integrity among the students for their writing procedure.
- The difference between the bibliography and work cited or reference list is that the latter include any quotes from which the students have pulled quotes or paraphrased the words while preparing for the task. However, a bibliography consists of all works that students have used at any point while writing the research paper.
- A reference list is a list of the resources that the school or college students have used in their work. On the other hand, a bibliography involves all such sources included by the students in the reference list, but the list will go one step further.
How to write a proper bibliography?
Whenever the students are writing about the research paper or any book, it is essential to include a proper bibliography. A bibliography is a useful way to highlight the readers that which of the sources are best used by the college students. However, it is not simple to write a proper format of bibliography.
The college students have to follow some of the useful steps for preparing a proper bibliography, such as:
For APA bibliography format writing style:
- Create an appropriate reference of the bibliography list: It is better for the college students if they reserve a page at the end of the research for including the bibliography references. It can be useful for the students if they title the reserved space as “References.” Under the heading given by the students, it is essential to enlist all the crucial sources which they have used for conducting research. Whether it is about the author’s name, place, date, or any other useful data has to get included in the bibliography list. Whatever the college students have used throughout the complete research done, it is necessary to present in front of the readers.
- Sort all of the references by the last name in alphabetical order: The school or college students need to use the author’s full last name along with the first and middle name if existing. If the students have used the sources written by more than one author, then they have to include all the publications by writing the name of the author in alphabetical order.
It is a good and impressive way to represent the list of author’s writings and the work done by them by writing according to the alphabetical order of their last names. However, if there are more than seven authors, then the students have to use ellipses to cite a proper bibliography.
At first, the students can list the first seven authors in the bibliography list of sources, and then they have to use ellipses which refer to a series of three periods. After using the proper curves, the college students have to write the name of the last author, which they can found listed on the sources.
- List sources by the same name of the author in chronological order: The school or college students might have multiple referenced sources with the name of the corresponding author that ultimately depends on the type of paper which they are writing. However, the students have to start first with the first publishes source, and then they have to list the rest of the sources in chronological order. Some of the useful information and reference can help the students to prepare proper bibliography.
- Use some of the facts: Sometimes it can be helpful for the students to include the organization name or points for writing the author’s name. If the college students are not able to find any of the author’s name or organization related to the source, then they can directly start bibliography with the title of the source. If the source included by the students in the list takes up more than one line, then they have to indent each succeeding line approximately 1.25 cm. When the students move for the next source, then they can start at the existing margin of the paper.
- Cite articles and books: Students have to cite the items with the name of the author following the year, the title of the article, publications, group of referenced pages, and other related numbers. If the students have retrieved the online item, then they can end the citation with “Retrieved from” words that follow up the web address.
Example: Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896
It is essential to start with the name of the authors following the publication year and the title of the book. The college students can include the location related to the publisher and finally the name who had published the content. If the content long has more than one word, then the only first word should get capitalized.
Example: Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
- Go for other reliable sources to follow citation rules: There is no doubt that APA has several citation rules which the students have to develop correctly. However, it is better to use a reliable source for getting more informative content quickly and of standard quality.
For MLA bibliography format writing style:
- Create a cited page for adding extra work: The college students have to reserve a page at the end of the conducted research paper for the procedure of bibliography. The students can name the reserved space as “works cited” by following the MLA citation style. After the last page of the paper, it is essential to write “Works Cited” at the topmost of the next page. The page should have the same header as the rest of the paper plus the page numbers should continue onto this page as well.
- Capitalize almost every word in titles except prepositions, articles, and conjunctions: Except for the words like “an,” “the,” “of,” and other prepositions, the college students have to capitalize every single word in the title of the source list. Sometimes the students are not sure that they have benefited the title or not, and even sometimes they do not know how to capitalize it. So at such situation, they can use online capitalization generators such as Title Capitalisation which helps in checking the titles properly.
- Double-space citation page prepared: The school or college students need to double space all the pages written in the MLA bibliography format. The students have not to put additional areas between every source until or unless they have double-spaced everything. If the source listed takes up more than one line, then it is essential to indent each successive line around 1.25cm. Once the students start with the news source, they have to go back to the original margin of the paper.
- List the references in alphabetical order by the last name of the author: When the students have mentioned the author’s last name, then they have to list the full first name plus the beginning or middle name. It is not essential to add the title or the degree related to the author in the bibliography. However, it is also not bad if the students include such information. It all depends on the choice of the students.
- Cite books, articles, and websites: For the citation of the books, students have to include the author’s last name along with the first name separated by a comma, and they have to end it with a period. It is essential to separate the place of publication and the company’s name who had published it by a colon. After that, the students have to separate them with a comma and the publication date.
Example: Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader’s Guide to Science Fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979
Starting with the author’s last name and then the first name, students have to create the title of the article in quotes. If the students are citing an article in a newspaper, then they have to include only the name of the publication. Then they have to follow the publishing date plus the page number.
Example: Hall, Trish. “IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why.” New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
For citing the websites, students have to start with the author’s last name and then the first name followed by a period. Then the college students have to mention the date of the publication plus the name of the institution sponsoring separated by the commas. In the end, the students have to include the time of access and the full web address that ends the citation.
Example: Dove, Rita. “Lady Freedom among Us.” The Electronic Text Center.Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu /subjects/afam.html>
- Use proper sources to look for other useful citation rules: There are several types of sources available for the students which the students can use in their research paper. However, using reliable sources can help college students to work according to the citation rules effectively.
Why is the bibliography useful in research?
If the college or school students are pursuing or planning to pursue research paper, then they have to understand that bibliography is the most crucial element in a research exercise. Without a bibliography, the research work is, in essence, useless.
Though it may sound shocking, indeed, research without the involvement of facts, pieces of evidence, and bibliography checking is worthless. No college or university professor will accept a thesis paper or a research paper without citation. However, the quote is incomplete without a bibliography or proper list of references.
The most efficient uses of bibliography are
- It makes research more efficient.: The bibliography is an efficient method to make the conducted research useful and attractive for the readers. When the audience fined that the college students have provided some of the valuable facts and evidence in the form of sources, then they realize that research done is impacting on some real issue.
- It helps in separating reliable and peer-reviewed sources from unreliable or out-of-date sources.: Sometimes the students assume that whatever they find on the internet or any of the source is true while doing research, but the case is not same for always. A peer-reviewed bibliography helps in making the students as researchers assured that the information they are looking for from those sources includes the highest standard by experts in the field.
- It helps in containing the classic plus foundational works in research: Current academic debate is a useful way to attract the readers for reading the entire research paper by including specific tasks that provide a proper framework to the discussion. For providing informed analysis of a subject area, the students must select several particular works to get well-understood among the readers. Bibliography helps the students in achieving this.
- Offers a guide for independent study.: Bibliographies provide crucial information to the college students related to the questions asked by the readers. It helps them to conduct direct independent research.
- It becomes easy to structure a class syllabus.: Syllabi or additional concepts often present a challenge for new professors as well as for the school students. It is vital to conduct comprehension of the area of study and essential task.
- Organize a course reading and supplemental reading list.: A substantial bibliography helps the school or college students to analyze the correct sources for mentioning in the list.
- Assist students properly: Many professors have the talent plus long experience of feeding the useful monographs and articles to students so that they can conduct the right research from the beginning of the task.
- Improvement with collection development.: Some of the top universities expand and create new courses or departments for the students with which they have to adapt. Bibliographies can offer assistance for analyzing and developing unique collections in these new areas.
- Support with correct research advisory.: Bibliographies often advise the school students on how and where to start educational research. The students can trust the list of references and points which they found on the old research paper.
- Stimulate creative ideas for displays.: Several institutions often highlight innovative works to encourage students and scholars for various challenging resources. Bibliographies around a particular theme can help students to leg-up in this process.
Top examples of Bibliography writing from which students get the best idea
It is necessary for the college or school students to first check out some of the cases so they might not fail in preparing for the best bibliography. Though there are many of the sources available for helping the students with the research process, only the standard quality of bibliography sample will contribute to a large extent:
Ruttenbur, Jared. eLearning: The Engine of Knowledge Economy. Information Science Reference, 2010.
The books of this publication provide industry-based useful information on how e-learning can get introduced in the educational system by using practical examples explained with the industry-based approach. It becomes easy to get the proper knowledge related to the additional procedures, which represent how the current educational system get influenced by new and innovative techniques.
When the students have gathered the proper information from the top sources, then they can easily prepare bibliography. It is useful to step for giving credit to people who deserve it.
Trust online writing services for preparing useful bibliography
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The excellent bibliography is the crucial element of a research paper or thesis which readers used to judge the quality of the work presented by the college or school students. Therefore, it becomes essential for the students to use up-to-date resources plus cite the proper sources.