Motivation Theories in Organizational Behavior Essay Sample
Motivation is an inner drive that triggers action. As you will find that different researchers talked about different motivational theories. Organizations have been implementing these motivational theories to tackle challenges like downsizing, demographic changes, globalization. Business enterprises need to retain employees.
Motivation is linked with organizational success as it helps them to accomplish goals, empowers the employees, and increases job satisfaction. Companies can gain a competitive edge by motivating their staff members.
Remuneration and rewards are some of the ways by which businesses can increase staff retention. By rewarding employees, businesses can inspire employees to look for ways to improve their task efficiency. Lack of motivation will dishearten the employees. Reward systems should be effective and inspire the employees to work hard and deliver efficient performance.
There are several forms of motivation. Some may get motivated by the challenges they face while working, while staffs motivated by the attention they get. The majority of the workers get motivated by the sum they get as remuneration or bonus. Nevertheless, cash motivation plays an important role. People stick to their jobs because of incentives, cash rewards, and pay scales that they get from their employers.
Attributes of motivation
- Motivation is a psychological process.
- It is a continuous process.
- Motivation varies from time to time and from person to person.
- Motivation is caused by anticipated and perceived value from activities.
- Motivation is of two types -positive motivation and negative motivation
Types of Motivation
Motivation is of two types. They are as follows:
- Extrinsic Motivation
- Intrinsic Motivation
- Extrinsic Motivation is when you use external factors to motivate the staff members to do what you want. It can be bonus checks, time off, pay hikes, or a threat to job loss. These are all external motivators. Some are negative, while some are negative.
- Intrinsic Motivation is about having a mental desire to overcome challenges and deliver high-quality services. Intrinsically motivated individuals get a great deal of satisfaction from the work they do. Different team members have different mindsets. So it is more likely that motivators differ from person to person.
So it is imperative to know your people, figure out things that motivate them. Use a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, so that you can motivate them successfully.
- Equity theory
Equity theory is about the relationship that persists between the employees and the motivation they get to work hard. It speaks of their conception regarding fair treatment at the workplace. Oftentimes, employers utilize employees as inputs to get their work done on time.
It is gradually changing with time. Employers get enlightened to motivate their employees. As per recent reports, employees not only get motivated by money, but attitude also motivates them. John Adams proposed the Equity theory in 1963.
Adams told that employees are always seeking equity between outcomes from efforts and input that they bring to the table. The point of concern is the reward received. Thus, it is the central cause of equity or lack of the same.
- Theory of Expectancy
Victor Vroom stated that the majority of the employees feel motivated when they perceive that the reward they get varies directly with the work done by them. Expectancy theories describe employee’s performance at the workplace. If an employee fails to perform accordingly, he wouldn’t get rewarded.
Expectancy, valence, and instrumentality are three factors in the Theory of expectancy. Expectancy is the belief of employees that particular action will lead to an outcome.
Valence is the strength of an individual towards accomplishing objectives. Instrumentality is the extent to which accomplishing the first level influences achievement of the second level.
- Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow stated that employees have different needs or desires that they want to be fulfilled.
- Needs for Security
- Group Needs
Basic needs can be fulfilled through the provision of a secured lifestyle through means of justified payscales. Reward mechanism on promotion depending on the skillsets, merits, and experience can boost the self-esteem of the individuals while fulfilling their needs.
Working groups that are equipped with seamless communication can be used to meet the group’s needs. Self-actualization can be fulfilled through employee development. An appraisal tool can be used to evaluate employee performance. HRM should use a tool that meets the needs of the employees.
Hierberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene factors are those that don’t give a positive sense of satisfaction to the employees. On the contrary, the absence of hygiene factors might result in dissatisfaction and disappointment. Motivation factors are those that inspire employees to work harder for improved performance.
Hygiene factors make sure that the employees don’t get dissatisfied with the work allocated. Hygiene factors are important to form a favorable work environment for the employees. But, these factors help businesses to sustain in the ever-changing market.
Employers rarely recommend workers for tasks accomplished. They can’t realize that the workers feel good about being appreciated. As per the philosophers and researchers, an appraisal from supervisors and managers is the most crucial reward mechanism that motivates the employees.
Employers get motivated when their contributions to the enterprise get identified and praised. As such, supervisors ought to recognize the importance of employees in businesses and appreciate them verbally or through writing.
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