Human Resource Assignment Help
Human Resource assignment help services are rendered by StudentsAssignmentHelp.com for the students’ in need. Human resource management is a field that is gradually gaining in value as well as status. In the global business environment, HRM has become a full-fledged management theory with an ample number of implications at the practical level. Various changes both inside and outside the business have led to influencing the managers at the top level to give due attention and significance to human resources and recognize it as the specific and distinct area of operation within the whole organization.
Besides the changes such as growing specialization of labor, rising conflicts and tensions in the relations of labor-management, and increasing size of the workforce, other types of factors have also contributed to the increasing attention given to human resources these days (Andrews 2013). The other factor includes the rising awareness among people at the management level about the growing significance of human resources in a dynamic and changing context of business in the global environment. Many organizations in varying industries have started to view human resources as the direct and efficient way to attain a competitive advantage in the business market (Durai 2013). The essay discusses factors that have driven the evolution of the field of HRM, critical challenges, and impact on HR practitioners in an increasingly global business environment.
Evolution of human resource management
In the contemporary era, human resource management is at its best so far as organizations consider people as an invaluable asset and a definite source of competitive advantage to the organization. The journey of human resources in all the eras in the history of HRM gives a proper demonstration of attitude and thinking of the employers and the employees at that point of time. The following figure depicts the brief journey of HRM in the form of evolution over the years.
Evolution of HRM (Source: Durai 2013) In the journey of shaping the HR environment of enterprises in different periods, various factors such as labor welfare laws, attitude of employers towards the workforce and the union, and strengths of the union are some of the factors that joined together to give shape to the HR environment. The First World War era was the period that witnessed significant changes in the HR policy for the first time. At that time, women were hired in significant numbers in various factories in order to meet the increased level of demand for the materials needed for the war.
Thus, a need was felt by organization of that time to make appropriate changes in the HR policy so that women can also become the part of the organization. Employee welfare issues along-with the matters such as attendance and time keeping were brought under the paradigm of HRM. Furthermore, changes in the society seen in the form of shortage of labor occurring after the world war led the business managers to make HR inclined at better cooperation and retention of employees. Trade unions also got the recognition in the era and labor officers were appointed in large scale in order to deal effectively with various aspects of employment such as recruitment, training, welfare, health and safety aspects of workers in the factories. The next era of Hawthorne studies led to approach and attitude of the HR professionals greatly influenced by the social factors. The groundbreaking disclosure of the Hawthorne studies that employees are more influenced when they work with collective decisions of the members of informal groups rather than just the pay and the perks (Durai 2013).
The era of Second World War forced several organizations to make room for establishments of full-time personnel departments for undertaking all essential activities and tasks so that they can attain a high level of productivity and optimum level of efficiency. Both welfare officers and labor officers were unified and were brought under the personnel administration. Since that change, personnel officers started to play the dual role of acting as line managers for the personnel department and as staff advisors to other line managers for giving advice in issues related to labor. The period of 1950-1960 saw developments in HR theory in the form of Maslow's need hierarchy theory for motivation and need identification of employees. Theory X and Theory Y given by Douglas McGregor for teaching the managers about the importance of adopting participative approach in decision-making was also developed (Durai 2013).
By 1920s, personnel management clearly emerged as a defined field confined to technical aspects of management such as hiring, training and compensation. HRM evolved in response to the substantial increase in competitive pressures that business organizations started experiencing by late 1970s due to factors, such as deregulation, globalization and rapid change in the technological field. In response to such changes, enterprises started to show concern in engagement in strategic planning which is the process of anticipating changes in future in the conditions of the business environment along-with the nature and level of the market (HR's Evolving Role in Organizations and Its Impact on Business Strategy 2008).
Typical human resource management comprises of training, appraisal and rewards for people working in the organization. It is a traditional approach for depicting how distinct human resource practices create an impact on individual outcomes. With more emphasis on holistic management and focus on overall organization efficiency to survive in the market, HRM led to the evolution of strategic human resource management. Strategic human resource management focuses on the creation of a fit between HRM functions and overall strategy of the organization. HRM is a traditional approach while SHRM is planned deployment of human resources for enabling the organization to attain its goals (Fleming 2013).
The history of the HR environment and progression at Ford Motors Company is an example of how HR practices have evolved in organizations. Ford Motors comes in one of the few exceptional organizations that played a proactive role in the process of introduction of employee-oriented HR policies and practices. During the period of 1910-1920, when welfare measures for employees were unknown, Ford Motors led to the introduction of innovative HR practices, such as compensation package higher than the industry average, and an effective workforce diversity policy. During the time of 1920-1940, the company implemented a policy of equal employment opportunity and the treatment policy.
It facilitated the appointment of a significant number of African-Americans as well as Asians to the position of managers in the company. Women were also recruited, and a non-discriminatory clause was also included in the company charter as an outcome of collective bargaining agreement with trade unions. Focus on promotion of an inclusive culture was also observed in Ford Motors with aim of creation of a high-performing, committed and collaborative work environment (Durai 2013).
Impact on HR practitioners
Changes in business and society lead to the evolution of HRM, which in turn affects the way HR practitioners behave and practice human resource management in the organization. Today, organizations continue to operate in the changing and dynamic business environment. All scholars agree that the role and significance of HR function have evolved from mere personnel management to strategic human resource management over the years. Therefore, HR practitioners need to view the function from newest perspectives in organizations. In the digital age, the function has evolved from the typical Personnel Administrative function to modern Human Capital Management function (Enz 2009).
Electronic HR management is also witnessing increasing focus and attention in the knowledge management. HR practitioners see the value and role of HR function as an increasingly important function that has increasingly become a business oriented. However, scholars believe that the HR should equally focus on employee well-being, and it should remain a critical function of the HR work. The practice of leading human resources has become a mission critical to the success and growth of all organizations in the hospitality industry (Nickson 2007). The concept of leading human resources has witnessed the evolution from the early days of maintenance of human records, organizing various activities, scheduling vacations and arrangement of the health coverage. Now days, work and workplace in the hotel sector has become much more complex than they used to be years ago. Apart from legislation and compliance, technology, positive work environment, diversity, recruitment, selection, training and development, team building and other factors have become important topics that have an impact on supervision and leadership of the human resources. In the context of the hospitality industry, HR professionals get, keep and grow the talent through associates who show passion for the hospitality industry (Wisikoti, Mutanga and Nhuta 2012).
An example of adjustment and adaptation according to the evolution and progress in HRM concept is leading hospitality company- Ritz Carlton. It has introduced the concept of organizational effectiveness with the intention of going beyond performing just the administrative and legal functions as they have been the mandated tasks under traditional HRM. Such adoption is aimed at addition of value through direct improvement of the performance of the business (Walker and Miller 2009).
Companies in the hotel sector are dependent on their human capital for attainment of competitive advantage. Therefore, the market value of these organizations shows increasing dependence on the intangible assets, such as core competencies, knowledge, and organizational capabilities. Similar example can be seen in the hospital industry. Progressive organizations are showing interest in involving human resource directors with the strategic planning process so that they can align the optimal talent with the attainment of organizational mission. An example of distinctive human resource leadership is Sarasota Memorial Hospital.
The hospital has built itself into one of the best hospitals in America with the help of the adoption of a progressive approach to practices related to human resources. The director of human resources in the hospital worked with the executive team for the development of vision, mission, and values for the hospital. The vision, mission and values of SMH, gives the description of what the organization wants to be in the market, why it wants to attain that goal, and what they believe in. As far as larger hotel establishments are concerned, the industry is no longer portrayed as non-strategic and backward. With the evolution of HRM, hotel management has become capable of generating high performance. HR practitioners have started to utilize a number of practices that are very similar to the best practice (Walker and Miller 2009).
Critical challenges HR faces in global business environment
Under the pressures of globalization, the roles and responsibilities of the human resource practitioners are on the way of transformation. Talent in the context of global supply is short in comparison to the long-term demand. The need to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of talent is a major challenge for employers in every part of the world. The likelihood of continuation of an increase in such shortage specifically for highly skilled workers creates challenge for human resource managers. Nations that are most emerging and having large populations, such as India, Russia, China and Brazil may not be fully able to sustain the net surplus workforce with presence of right skills for much longer (Crouse, Wendy and Young 2011).
Organizations are placing greater emphasis on the attraction of human capital instead of financial capital. The reason for such increasing attention towards human resource management is that capital is available at a broad level from both investors and lenders. Innovations can also be duplicated in an easy and quick manner in comparison to the human resource management. When human resource management is effective, it helps in the creation of the way in which companies can differentiate from one another. Companies are required to focus on global staffing and global leadership development. It remains the biggest challenge for human resource departments of multinational firms to manage cultural and lingual diversity in the workforce that is distributed in various countries (Kapoor 2013).
Companies adopt hard and soft models of HRM. The hard model seeks employees as a resource and is managed just like any other factor of production. The approach sees an exemplification in the strategic model of HRM. It has been argued by several authors that the approach is helpful in suppressing the resistance of employees. On the other hand, the soft approach of HRM views employees as valuable assets and understands the importance of commitment of employees in the attainment of organizational success. The soft model of HRM is known as the Harvard model of HRM (Nickson 2007).
The tourism and the hospitality industry are specifically vulnerable to the economic cycles as well as changes in the political environment. The global nature of the hospitality industry indicates its vulnerability to external changing situations and events that can cause fluctuations in visits and expenditure done by tourists. For instance, the global economic downturn, Iraq war, and news of spread of the outbreak of SARS in the region comprising Far East led to a major drop in the revenue in the industry. Such factors led to the reduction of the number of travelers at the international level leaving uncertainty and fragility in the market of tourism.
In order to face such challenges, many companies in the industry have adopted a soft approach to the HRM. For instance, British Airways led the series of steps in the period of 1980s-1990s such as ‘Winning for Customers' and ‘Putting People First'. However, companies may keep alternating between the hard and the soft approach that can leave employees confused as to what message the company wants to give. Employees can prove to be the greatest assets of the company. However, at the times of downturn and uncertainty, employees can be equally expendable (Human resource management and the tourism and hospitality industry: An introduction 2013).
In the era of globalization, hotel industry is still seen to be adopting the traditional approach to HRM. Fewer evidences are present for the adoption of sophisticated approaches to HRM. In comparison to other service and manufacturing industries at a global level, the hotel industry is slow in terms of shifting to human resource management from personnel management. It is essential for hotel management to adopt sophisticated approaches to HRM as employees are the key in determining service quality in the hotel sector (Yang and Cherry 2008). Therefore, hospitality HRM needs to be more proactive and open to adopting sophisticated approaches to HRM. It is a critical challenge for HR managers to control employees in the service sector, such as hotels.
Hotel sector is labor intensive. Employees can remain customer focused only when they are committed to the service culture instead of being just obedient. Training is one of the solutions for facing globalization challenges in the industry. It leads to improvement in the self-confidence of employees, reduced level of attrition rate, stronger commitment to the organization and higher customer satisfaction. Behavior-based evaluation is another solution for the support of customer-oriented strategy. The strategy focuses on customer oriented behavior of front-line employees rather than the specific outcomes that are work-related. Learning theory also justifies that the behavioral employee evaluations are an effective tool for the support of desirable behavior of employees (Tesone, 2008).
Human resource management has seen growth and progress in terms of transmission from personnel management to strategic human resource management. Various business and social changes have played a key role in the evolution of modern HRM practice and measures. HR practitioners have become more proactive. With every phase of evolution of HRM, the attitude and behavior of HR practitioners have been modified. The hotel sector is still seen to be slow in terms of adoption of sophisticated HR practices and approaches when compared to firms in other service and manufacturing sector. Globalization brings vulnerability related to economic and financial issues. It also brings diversity issues. Training and adoption of behavior based evaluation strategy can be a potential solution to the problem.
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