Modified: 6th Feb 2020 175
The framework and dimension of management experienced many reforms and powerful trends in the present century. The reforms and trends provided and reshaped the composition and dimension of management in several ways. The dimension of management and gender is an example of such transformation which has transformed the terms of the employer-employee relationship in the current era. The dimension of management and gender is most commonly associated and understood with the terms of employee inequality, male dominance, an inappropriate ratio of men and women in the total workforce, etc. The emergence of such terms has attracted the attention of many management scholars and practitioners across the globe (Reed 2001).
The wide popularity and demand for a discussion on the issue of management and gender have transformed and coined the topic as a management perspective. The phenomena of management and gender are no longer considered as an issue, rather it is being visualized and understood as a management perspective. The gender issue and employment inequality has been resolved and satisfied with the help of many regulatory frameworks. The government of various countries have introduced various rules and regulations aimed at resolving the gender gaps and inequality issues in the commercial world (Sweetman 2001). The concept of human rights has also attributed a lot in providing new dimension and direction to the concept of gender in management.
Nowadays, the business world functions through a varied workforce in order to accelerate the pace of innovations and to attain a new dimension of growth and expansion. The fluctuations in market demand also necessitate the business organization to incorporate variability in their functioning pattern to respond to such changes quickly and flexibly in the market place. The flexibility, variability and diversity characteristics enable the management of business organizations to identify and respond the needs of new markets in a quick and responsive manner (Bilimoria and Piderit 2007). The quick and immediate attention towards changes taking place in the market place demand reforms in the existing approach and philosophy of traditional management. The traditional approach of management which rely on the male dominating workforce seems ineffective and inadequate in the present-day environment. The business organizations having a diversified workforce can cope and handle such changes and fluctuations in an effective manner and can gain a foothold in the marketplace.
The present essay aims at elaborating the linkage between management and gender. The linkage between management and gender will outline the gender issues existing in the traditional philosophy of management. Gender issues will be explored and investigated through literary sources. The study of gender issues prevailing in the traditional management world will help in determining the extent, influence and trends prevailing in the gender framework. But, with the passage of time and abolishment of male dominating society has provided a new dimension to the gender issue in business organizations (Collins et al. 2012). The increasing role of women and minorities has brought many changes in the realm of management. The present essay aims at presenting and summarising the changes in the gender realm and the impact of such changes on the management of business organizations.
The literary sources will present analysis and investigation of the concerned topic in light of various literary sources. The literary sources that will be approached primarily for the purpose of investigation and analysis of topic are books, journal articles, research work, etc. All the literary sources will collect various facts and findings related to the underlying topic and changes emerging in the concerned topic. The literature review will collect and analyse the information regarding the linkage between management and gender from relevant and authentic literary articles. The literary sources will provide a thorough and in-depth understanding of the various aspects of the underlying topic (Wilson 2001). The investigation of the linkage between the management and gender and evaluating it in light of literary sources will help in ascertaining and drawing concluding results and observations regarding the research topic.
The linkage between the management and gender has been discussed and outlined in different parts such as:
Stevenson and St-Onge (2005) asserted that management and gender perspective has been visualized and understood as a means of providing a heterogeneous workforce to business organizations. The demand of heterogeneous workforce has become the basic and prime requirement of business organizations to compete and sustain in the present competitive dynamics. The author has further asserted that management and gender have been conceptualized as a new perspective on account of its ability and potentiality of providing a diversified workforce to the business firms. The diversified and heterogeneous workforce accelerates the pace of innovation and development in the business world.
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The changing and diversified nature of customer needs and preferences also correspond to the requirement of the diversified workforce to handle and cope up with such changing needs and preferences. The diversity in the workforce here implies providing equal opportunity to the men, women and ethnic minorities in the overall workforce composition of business organizations. The business firms are expected and required to offer a flexible set of work arrangement, wage pay, rewards and benefits to the entire workforce in order to motivate and encourage them to adjust and function in the complex environmental setting of business organizations. The composition of diversified workforce enables the business firms to develop the foundation of delivering flexible, on-demand customer services and developing strong relationship with each employee (Stevenson and St-Onge 2005).
The era of mergers and acquisitions also facilitated the inclusion of a diversified workforce in business organizations. Various forms of business consolidations like mergers, acquisitions, takeover, etc allow the business organizations to recruit and include the employees of different origins, culture, and customs. The inclusion of employees of varied culture, customs, and origins bring a changing landscape in the dimension of management and gender.
According to Heath(2000), changes and shifts in the demographic pattern across the world foster new theme and idea of analysing management and gender linkages. The demographic pattern of the workforce has changed considerably in the present years. The changes and shifts in the demographic pattern have been evidenced by the increasing number and proportion of women in the total composition of the workforce. The women represent around 48 per cent of the total composition of the workforce of the United States. The changing family patterns and work structure led the researchers to project an increase in the proportion of women in the total workforce composition (Heath 2000).
The author argued that changes in the family patterns and work structures led the women to participate actively in the business functioning. The women workforce are being provided with more flexible schedules and work preferences in order to encourage them towards participating in business organizations functioning. The changes in the demographic shifts demand the business organizations to include the women and ethnic minorities in the existing composition of the workforce. The demographic shift has also been visualised by business firms as a step towards becoming competitive and technology-driven. It becomes necessary for a business organization to keep pace with the changes in the demographic shifts to remain competitive and dynamic in the business world (Heath 2000).
The emergence of the knowledge-based economy demands knowledge workers initiate and stimulate the pace of knowledge-based works in the business organizations as mentioned by Phillips (2006). The changing and dynamic environment conditions require the workers and employees of present business organizations to function and operate in every environmental setting. The skill, abilities and capabilities of workers and employees should be such that they are capable of functioning in each environmental setting. Nowadays, business organizations are in search of such manpower and workers capable of working in each and every possible environmental dynamics. In other words, employees capable of moulding and adjusting their skills and abilities in accordance with the environment needs and demand is demanded and recruited by the business firms.
This inclination and changes in the orientation of business firms in recruiting and employing a workforce of dynamic skills and capabilities provided new insight into the management and gender dynamics. The emergence of the knowledge-based economy and demand for knowledge work provided absolute freedom to the business organizations in recruiting and employing personnel backed and equipped with dynamic skills and abilities. The realm of gender has no longer been viewed as a restrictive platform requiring organizations to recruit particular class and category of employees. Rather, it has been viewed as a broader platform allowing business organizations to recruit required class and category of employees compatible with overall organizational goals and objectives (Phillips 2006).
According to Ruxton (2004), the increased proportion and emergence of women in the workforce in the past few decades transformed management and gender linkages to a wide extent. The increased number and proportion of women in the supervisor and managerial levels led the management thinkers and practitioners to assess the management and gender linkages in a positive and assertive manner. The transformation in the management and gender linkages placed the women at higher supervisory and management levels in business organisations. The placement of women at higher managerial and supervisory levels focussed the attention of business scholars towards the skills and abilities of the women workforce.
The skills and abilities of women in solving business problems and issues introduced and initiate the feminist style of management in the business world. The business problems and issues remained unsolved or appear difficult to be solved by the male managerial members are solved quite easily through the soft skills of female managerial members. The association of management and gender has provided the business world with the new insight and understanding of women’s abilities and capabilities in solving business issues and problems (Ruxton 2004).
The linkage between the management and gender has been impacted and transformed by the three major trends-emergence of the diversified and heterogeneous workforce, the increased importance of knowledge work, changes in the demographic shifts and feminist style of management. The discussion in relation to management and gender has been made in light of the findings of the literature review. More specifically, the underlying section of discussion makes an attempt to ascertain the impact of management and gender perspective on the business world. The major discussion points related to the linkage of management and gender are:
The findings of the literature review asserted that the emergence of workforce diversity on account of changes in the landscape of management and gender. The increased importance and recognition of women and ethnic minorities have made the prevailing culture and workforce as diversified and multi-tasking. The workforce diversity has been visualized as a major trend of management and gender perspective and led the business organizations to shift their orientation from industrial-based economy to a knowledge-based economy.
The knowledge-based economy led the business organizations to adapt fast, an adaptable and innovative method of functioning. In the past years, the standardized and uniform business model was being highly valued and recognized by business organizations. The standardization and uniformity in the business process were being viewed as a source of competitive advantage. Employees and personnel were considered as an interchangeable and easily replaceable asset by the business organisations. The employees and personnel were expected to adhere by the instructions and were expected to maintain deliver high production efficiency (Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific: A Companion to the World Development Report 2012).
The framework of management and gender has changed and transformed the traditional thinking and evolved workforce diversity as the major source of competitive advantage. The diversity in the workforce provides new and powerful opportunities for enhancing organisation performance. The performance is enhanced as people from varied backgrounds and skills foster new creativity and innovation method of functioning to the business firms. The diversified skills, competencies, adaptability, immediate and fast responsive abilities of diversified workforce introduce new and innovate thinking pattern and broad perspectives in business organisations (Markovi? 2012).
The changing realm of management and gender fosters business organisations with new approaches and methods of implementing corporate strategies. The new approaches and methods of implementing corporate strategies stem from the different work shifts and work patterns of the diversified workforce. The diversified workforce does not pose uniform and similar working patterns. Employees and personnel in the diversified workforce belong from varied backgrounds and skills and therefore functions in different work patterns and work shifts. This peculiar characteristic of a diverse workforce and changing the realm of management and gender offers the business organisations with the opportunity of selecting employees posing the skills and capabilities suitable with their respective strategic framework. The diverse workforce poses different work patterns and work shifts and thus implements corporate strategies in an effective manner.
The changes in the demographic shifts also attributed to the introduction of new work patterns and work shifts thus provide a new paradigm to the management and gender perspective. The varied and differing work arrangement is another major outcome of changing the landscape of management and gender (Konrad 2005). The employees and workforce of business organisations can work for flexible hours. The business organisations of the present word are in demand of diverse workforce capable of forming a cohesive team in order to attain the defined objectives. The cohesive team pose the right kind of skills and support the execution of corporate strategies. The business organisations need to provide the right combination of opportunities and rewards to motivate and encourage the workforce to perform optimally.
The point of discussion stems from the incorporation of the feminist style of management in the business world. The feminist style of management has provided a new approach and methodology in solving business problems. The business problems and issues which were solved initially by the dominating and harsh skills of male managers appear no longer effective in the current scenario. Business organisations seek for such skills capable of solving and handling business issues and problems in a comparative soft approach. It is due to the reason that sound and positive relations with all stakeholders is of utmost importance for recording high growth and development opportunities.
Relationship management has emerged as one of the essential and significant functions of business organisations. The relations can be managed and maintained by the business personnel and employees functioning in respective organisations. The role of business personnel in managing and enriching relations with stakeholders again draw attention to management and gender perspectives. The changing demand for relationship management demands each and every personnel of business firms participate actively in the relationship management tasks and process. This changing demand for relationship management again draws attention to management and gender perspectives (Ryle 2011). The traditional approach of management and gender perspective revolved only around male managerial members in developing a positive relationship with stakeholders. The role of women was completely undermined in developing positive relations with stakeholders and in solving business issues.
The male and female members are assigned with the equivalent powers and responsibilities necessary to discharge their duties in an effective manner. Besides, the modern perspective of management and gender emphasis and relies on soft and creative skills of female members in managing and maintaining business relations. The modern scholars and management practitioners believe that soft, creative and dynamic skills of female managers can prove more effective and will yield better results in relationship management spectrum.
This is another major implication and consequence of changing the realm of management and gender perspectives. The management and gender perspective played a significant role in eliminating gender differences and gaps in the commercial world. The perspective of management and gender allowed the business organisations to learn and deal with the internal differences arising on account of gender gaps and issues. This learning and capability allow the business organisations to respond and adapt more easily with the changing circumstances. The business organisations also introduce open and direct communication among all working people regardless of any gender difference. The open and direct communication provided with enhanced speed and agility and led the business firms to be more innovative in solving business problems (Bilimoria and Piderit 2007).
The overall discussion about the perspective of management and gender led to the conclusion that gender differences, wage differentials among men and women members, the dominance of male managerial personnel, etc are some of the key areas brought attention towards this management perspective. The issue of gender gaps and wage inequality gained considerable attention in recent years and create a negative impact on the sustainable position of the global business world. Such factors attracted the attention of management practitioners and scholars towards gender issues and coined the management and gender perspective.
The management and gender perspective witnessed and evidenced the trends of changes in demographic shifts, workforce diversity, feminist style of management, and knowledge-based economy (Little and Morris 2005). The emergences of these trends brought various reforms and changes in the business world. The traditional pattern and mode of functioning of business organizations have been rendered ineffective in the present world. The business organizations are in demand and need of ‘groupthink’ process allowing each and every category of personnel to participate and facilitate business decisions.
The human resources and personnel are the major assets of business organizations and can drive growth and development process. The active participation of business personnel can stimulate the process of growth and development in business organizations. It is also worth mentioning that business organizations capable of innovating and identifying new solutions can sustain and improve their current positioning in the market place (Penrose-Buckley 2007). Innovation and identification of new solutions demand the active participation of every individual member of business organizations. Business organizations capable of integrating and harnessing the contributions of each individual members can only gain and sustain in the present scenario. This is due to the fact that such organizations are capable of creating a cohesive team and utilizing the synergistic power of a team for enhancing their business competitiveness.
The global trends and changing dynamics of the business world necessitate changes in the traditional perspective of management and gender. The global trends and business world dynamics demand perspective of management and gender to provide equal opportunity and responsibility to all members of organisations in participating and handling business issues and problems irrespective of any gender gaps and differences.