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Modified: 4th Feb 2020 289

Pollution

Pollution also is known as environmental pollution refers to the introduction of harmful substances and contaminants in the environment. It is the most crucial threat faced by all countries globally. The substances are responsible to cause pollution are known as pollutants. Pollution is responsible for:

  • Give rise to human illnesses and global warming
  • Affect our normal lifestyles
  • Disturb the balance of ecosystems

Pollution has now achieved the highest level because of industrialization and development. The very first reason for environmental pollution are humans itself. They are becoming prisoners of their own creations.

The environmental pollution can some into any of the following categories:

  • Radioactive pollution
  • Thermal pollution
  • Soil pollution
  • Light pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Noise pollution
  • Air pollution

It is very necessary for us to understand how pollution can affect and how it can be reduced.

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Types and causes of environmental pollution:

As we have already seen different types of environmental pollution in the above paragraph. The type of environmental pollution depends on the causes and factors responsible to cause pollution. The classification of environmental pollution is done on the basis of certain specific natural components. The agents are responsible to cause pollution are known as pollutants. Some of the sources that cause environmental pollution are:

  • Industrial waste: The primary pollutants to cause environmental pollution are industries as they are responsible for the emission of harmful gases such as carbon, nitrogen, sulphur etc in the earth’s atmosphere. These harmful gases have the responsibility to cause air pollution. Also, industries are responsible for water pollution due to the insolvent of the effluents into the water bodies. Industrial wastes are responsible for soil, air and water pollution.
  • Vehicles:  Humans are widely using vehicles all over the world and its use continuously keeps on increasing. At one side, Vehicles are responsible to ease our means of communication and it becomes more easy for us to travel, but on the other hand, the harmful gases emitted from vehicles are responsible for air pollution.
  • Agricultural waste:  With the increase in population, the need for agricultural products also keeps on increasing. With the aim of enhancing agricultural productivity, the utilization of chemicals and pesticides also been increasing at a wider pace. But these chemicals and pesticides along with the increasing productivity, also adding up to pollute our environment.
  • Solid waste dumping: The waste materials resulted from the household activities are responsible for environmental pollution in the absence of their proper disposition.
  • Population overgrowth:  As the population is growing disastrously, the requirement for basic living needs such as a house, food, occupation also been increasing. This demand is responsible for continuous deforestation to fulfil the basic needs of the overgrowing population.
  • Fossil fuel combustion:  The carbon monoxide gas emitted from fossil fuel combustion is responsible for different types of pollution such as water, air, soil, etc.

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Effects of environmental pollution:

The effect of environmental pollution depends widely on the type of pollution that is causing it.

  • The effect of air pollution: Ozone layer depletion and harm to human health.
  • The effect of water pollution: Acidification and end of aquatic life.
  • The effect of soil pollution: Hinders growth of plants.

There are limitless diseases caused because of environmental issues. Some of them are;

  • Lung diseases
  • Allergies
  • Congenital disabilities
  • Mercury poisoning
  • Radiation augmented cancers
  • Cardiovascular diseases and stroke
  • Lead poisoning
  • Skin cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Asthma
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Types of environmental pollution:

  • Air pollution: The most commonly observed form of environmental pollution. The main cause of air pollution is the increasing use of fuel. The use of fuel has been increasing drastically both for domestic and industrial purpose. All the industrial and household activities emit a great amount of polluting agents into the earth’s atmosphere that causes air pollution.
  • Water pollution: Water is a very vital need for the survival of human beings and other creatures. Most of the living species depend on the water body to live, therefore it is very necessary to control the water pollution. The main causes responsible for water pollution is the disposal of industrial wastes into the water bodies. Water pollution can make the survival of water creatures difficult. Also, there are various human diseases caused by water pollution.
  • Soil pollution: Soil pollution is also named as land pollution. Soil pollution is caused by adding unwanted chemicals to the soil. Adding pesticides and insecticides in the soil can make it unfit for plants and responsible for soil pollution.
  • Noise pollution: The noise coming from various sources with an intensity more than 85db and that unbearable for the human ear are responsible to cause noise pollution. The main cause of air pollution is industrial pumps, loud processors, etc. Hypertension and stress are crucial psychological problems caused by noise pollution.
  • Radioactive pollution: It is the most dangerous of all the forms of environmental pollution. The effects caused by radioactive pollution are not temporary and almost irreparable. The major effects of radioactive pollution are:
  • Different birth diseases
  • Blindness
  • Cancer
  • Infertility

Conclusion:

To meet the needs of the overgrowing population and technological advancements, the demand for natural resources keep on increasing. But we cannot ignore the fact that the environment is paying a huge amount to meet all these needs and in return affecting the living creatures life.

If environmental pollution increases at the same pace, it will make it difficult for future generation to survive. So it is highly recommended to adopt effective measures to reduce the causes of environmental pollution.

Certain important strategies are:

  • Use of ecologically safe technologies
  • Use of wind energy
  • Use of solar energy

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